Essays On Bismarck And German Unification

Bismarck's Unification Of Germany, 1862 1871 Essay

A.) The Situation in 1862

When OTTO VON BISMARCK was appointed chancellor of Prussia by King Wilhelm IV. in 1862, the liberal democratic attempt to unify Germany had failed (1848/49). There was a widespread sentiment among the Germans, especially among the urban and protestant Germans, in favor of unification. Under similar conditions, COUNT CAMILLO CAVOUR had engineered Italy's unification in 1859/60. As in Italy's case, there were a number of obstacles to Germany's unification. Among them were foreign powers' interests in Germany:

Foreign Interests in Member Territories of the German Confederation, 1815-1870

Denmark The Netherlands Britain Holstein, Lauenburg (Duchies) Luxemburg (Duchy), Limburg (County) Hannover (on the British throne ruled the Hanover Dynasty)

Then, there was Austria, an Empire German by tradition and character (administration), but in which Germans accounted for only about 12 % of the population and which was a multinational state. The GREATER GERMAN SOLUTION would mean the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire and was out of the question. So, the only option would be unification according to the SMALLER GERMAN SOLUTION, without the German territories held by Austria, under the leadership of Prussia. Still, Austria was against this model; Austria still held the presidency in the GERMAN CONFEDERATION, and many of the smaller state administrations, fearing Prussia's dominance, leant on Austria.

Then, Prussia, leading the unification, faced, to a lesser extent, Austria's dilemma. The Prussian provinces of Posen, West Prussia and East Prussia were not part of the German Federation, West Prussia and Posen having a Polish population majority. Other regions located outside of the German confederation, such as the Danish Duchy of SCHLESWIG, the French province of ALSACE and large parts of SWITZERLAND, had a German speaking majority.

B.) The Man

Otto von Bismarck was a nobleman, raised in the spirit of Prussian Bureaucracy, in loyalty to Prussia and the Hohenzollern Dynasty. He had been Prussia's ambassador to Russia (1859-62) and to France (1862) before having been appointed chancellor in 1862. He kept distance to Prussia's diet and baffled everybody by stating that Germany's unification would have to be achieved by BLOOD AND IRON. He expanded the military budget, knowing that the recently invented NEEDLE GUN would give Prussia's army an advantage in the field - it could be reloaded 3 times as fast as the hitherto used guns. Bismarck was regarded an outsider.

In 1871, unification being accomplished, sceptical criticism and mockery gave way to admiration. Bismarck had turned the dream of many into reality and, by defeating the French, turned lack of confidence (as a political nation) into pride tending towards overconfidence.

C.) The Wars Leading to Unification

In 1863, during the Polish uprising in Russian Poland, Bismarck supported the Russians, while public...

Loading: Checking Spelling

0%

Read more

Unification of Germany Essay

2761 words - 11 pages Unification of Germany On January 18, 1871, the German Empire was proclaimed宣佈æˆç«‹. It is a turning point轉æ©é»ž in the European history, and was one of the remote causesé å›  that led to the outbreak of the First World War. In fact, the success of German unification was due to the interplay互相交織 of many factors. Ideological ----------- a. Liberalism: Ideas of liberalism had been sown by the...

The Unification of Germany Essay

1365 words - 5 pages The Unification of Germany           In 1871 the thirty-eight states of what was once the Holy Roman Empire, re-united to become what was known in the early twentieth century as simply, The German Empire, united under the rule of the German Emperor, or Kaiser. There are many factors which led to the unification of the German states; liberalism, nationalism, Otto Von Bismarck, fear of ‘another Napoleon’, the Prussian King William I, and the...

Unification of Germany

1186 words - 5 pages The growth of the European super powers during the 19th century consisted of the great powers vying for territorial attainments, developing their international influence, and ensuring positive domestic attitudes of their diplomatic actions. Attempting to cement their hegemony of international politics, the Prussian Empire sought to create an ethnically and politically unified German state to rebuff the prominence granted to Austria at the...

Unification of Germany

1531 words - 6 pages As indicated with the examples of Italy and Belgium, the international system favored the larger super powers over smaller states within Europe and as Germany steadily grew to the status of great power, the preexisting powers appeared virtually diplomatically undisturbed by the change. Most notably, Great Britain viewed the unification of Germany as the weakening of France as opposed to the rise of Germany, indicating where the naval power placed...

Analyzing the unification of Italy and Germany

1932 words - 8 pages The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of ambassadors from various states and territories across Europe that began in September 1814 and lasted through June 1815. It was the first meeting in history where national representatives came together to create treaties instead of relying on letters between different nations. The primary objective of the meeting was to resolve land disputes that arose from the French Revolutionary wars, Napoleonic wars...

The ill future of Germany and Bismarck's mistake in taking Alsace Loraine.

1199 words - 5 pages In the short time following Hans Blix's devastating report and President Bush's compelling State of the Union address, Saddam Hussein looks increasingly more like a dead man walking. In all likelihood, Baghdad will be liberated by April. This may turn out to be one of those hinge moments in history--events like the storming of the Bastille or the fall of the Berlin Wall--after which everything is different. Another such moment is history was...

To what extent was Bismarck responsible for the unification of Germany?

1740 words - 7 pages Under the guidance of Bismarck, the Prussian chancellor, the unification of a Kleindeutsch (small Germany) took place in 1871 after Prussia defeated France. There is often historical debate over who was responsible for the unification of Germany. Controversy is caused amongst those who believe that Bismarck was fully responsible for German...

"Nationalism was probably the most important cause of unification". Discuss with reference to Germany.

843 words - 3 pages The Germany unification, which was carried out in 1864-1871. The unification movement was often described as a product of nationalism and liberalism. It is fact started by a number of factors including the power struggle between Prussia and Austria, the policy the leaders of Prussia adopted . Nationalism is the feeling of loyalty shared by a group of people united by same language, race and culture; to express their loyalty to their...

Compare and Contrast the Unification of Germany, Italy, and the United States

2967 words - 12 pages Compare and Contrast the Unification of Germany, Italy, and the United States From the 1790s to 1814 French troops successively conquered and occupied the area that later constituted the German Empire. French domination helped to modernize and consolidate Germany and -- toward the end -- sparked the first upsurge of German nationalism. In different ways the French emperor Napoleon I helped German unification. It was important that he...

Blood and Iron - The Main Factors in the Unification of Germany

2033 words - 8 pages Blood and Iron - The Main Factors in the Unification of Germany The unification of Germany was not just a matter of the signing a document stating that the many states had become one country. There were problems such as varying languages, currencies, and ethnic minorities to name a few. In the end however one country, Germany was the states as one but how was it unified? 'Coal and iron' refers to economic ties unifying...

the unification of germany

1437 words - 6 pages Zakiyah KhanTo what extent do you agree with the view that the provisions of the Vienna settlement remained unchanged in the years to 1849? (May 2011)It can be argued that by 1849 the provisions of the Vienna settlement remained unchanged to a certain extent. In 1815 Napoleonic France was defeated by the other Great Powers of Europe. Britain, Prussia, Austria decided the fate of...

The Importance of Bismarck to German Unification Essay

723 Words3 Pages

The Importance of Bismarck to German Unification

When Bismarck became chancellor of Prussia in 1862 nationalism had already started 47 years ago in 1815. Although Bismarck greatly helped the move towards unification there were also many other factors involved. These factors included things such as the economic power of the Zollverein and the fact that having a strong country would make them safer, and they all shared the same enemy: France. It is necessary to compare these factor with each other in order to asses the importance of Bismarck to German unification.

Historians such as Frank Eyck believe that unification of Germany 'was a natural and desirable development.' In many ways this is true.…show more content…

The German nationalists called a National Assembly in Frankfurt to prepare the unification of Germany. The people all wanted a unified Germany and this was their first attempt at it.

''Coal and iron' not 'blood and iron' were the Prussian power base' (Stiles the unification of Germany 1815 - 1890) Economic power, and especially the Zollverein, was of course one of the biggest factors contributing to German unification. After 1850 Germanys industries really began to take off. Factories were built at a spectacular rate, railroads grew connecting different parts of the country and Prussia had one of the best education rates to be seen in a long time. Along with industrialization came a steep up rise in population and huge numbers of people moving into the cities. The result of the railways, education and urbanization was that ideas began to spread and before 1871 Germany was already culturally and economically unified.

Although all of these factors were pointing Germany in the right direction for unification there was one man who 'forged the Reich' (Adolf Hitler): this man was Bismarck. One of the first things that he did was to increase Prussia's popularity, and he did so in the war against Denmark. When Denmark attempted to make Schleswig and Holstein an integral part of Denmark, Austria and Prussia fought side by side in order to keep them as part of the German

Show More

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *