Unit 7 Communication Skills Homework

AP Human Geography unit 7

the action or process of regions or areas collecting in mass usually for certain advantages
another name for squatter settlements that are residential developments that take place on land that is neither owned nor is rented by its occupants
a geographical economic theory to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the CBD increases
a process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood
CBD (central business district)
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published
The functional dominance of cities within an urban system
Is the process by which the activities of an organization
a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
created the central place theory which displayed the ideas that central places would provide services and goods to the surrounding areas
conglomeration of people and buildingd clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics.
compared to older cities , colonial cities typically contain wider streets and public squares, lager houses, surrounded by gardens, and much lower density
the transfermation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
the fifth ring in the concentric zone model that is beyond the continuous built-up area of the city
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
the process of dispersing desicion-making closer to the point of service or action
a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industry in a country or region
cities of the ancient world
Economic Base (basic/nonbasic)
a commutity's collection of basic industries
a large node of office and retail activities on teh edge of an urban area
city currantly without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate
how the workforce is divided up between the three main employment sectors - primary, secondary, and tertiary
a neighborhood in which the people who live in there and share physical, mental, and cultural traits
the brazilian equivalent of a shanty-town, which are generally found on the edge of the city
a household in which the most powerful person is a female
a landscape of cultural festivities
serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation.
the social differences between men and women
the invations of older, centrally located working class neighborhoods by higher income households seeking the character and convenience of less expensive and well-located residences
durning the middle ages, a nieghborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure
a city with a population of more then 1 million
made up of thousands of high tech businesses and industries
the area surrounding a cental place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
any culture having an agricultural system that is dependent upon large-scale government-managed waterworks
a center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country
the use of vacant land and property within a built-up area for further construction or development
it is the economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that governments GNP
the fundenmental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, such as transprotation and communication systems, power plants, and schools
residental neighborhoods that surround the CBD
a model of change used in urban ecology to represent the effects of immigration on the social structure of an urban area
commuting between two suburbs
cities that existed during the time frame of the middle ages
a recognized metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people
an area of an adjacent metropolitan ares that overlap
the couny within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
the expansion of the money supply that results from a Federal Reserve System member bank's ability to lend significantly in excess of its reserves
the area or region around or near some place or thing
is an area of land in which many office buildings are grouped together
Peak land value intersection
is the land within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce
any community that was carfully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undevelped area
a city in which an economic transition has occured from a manufacturing based economy to a servicebased economy
Postmodern urban landscape
Attempts to reconnect people to place through its architecture, the preservation of historical buildings, the re-emergence of mixed land uses and connections among developments
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second ranking settlement
refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race
a pattern of settlement in a country
a process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to perchase or improve property within boundries
provision in a property deed preventing sale to a person of a particular race or religion; loan discrimination; ruled unconstitutional
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
Settlement form (nucleated, dispersed, elongated)
nucleated: a compact, closely packed settlement sharply decorated from adjoining farmlands; dispersed: characterized by a much lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads; elongated: a state whose territory is long and narrow in shape
mercantile establishment consisting of a carefully landscaped complex of shops representing leading merchandisers
Site = the physical character of place; what is found at the location and why it is significant, Situation = the location of a place relative to other places
a heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor
social organization based on established patterns of social interaction between different relationships
separation of tasks within a system
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Street pattern (grid, dendritic, access, control)
the way in which streets are designed;
grid: streets are arranged in a grid-like fashion; dendritic: characterized by fewer streets organized based on the amount of traffic each is intended to carry; access: provides access to a subdivision, housing project, or highway; control: allows highways or housing projects to be supervised
residential areas on the outskirts of a city or large town
a term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities
landscape that depicts symbols
An apartment building, especially one meeting minimum standards of sanitation, safety or maintenance up keep.
The minimum number of people needed to support the service.
Significance: Many service companies when thinking of a location will consider the threshold or hte number of people that are needed fro them to stay in business.
an urban area with a fixed boundary that is smaller than a city
a group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Significance: Many of the underclass live in the inner cities which face tough issues making it hard for them.
Employed at a job that does not fully use one's skills or abilities.
Significance: Since there is a competition for jobs in some areas especially those that are highly urbanized means that there might be a fraction of people who are underemployed.
The rate at which an urban area grows.
Significance: It lets geographers know the fastest growing urban areas and analyze their growth.
Services that are provided in a certain urban area
An area, like Mesopotamia or the Nile Valley, where large cities first existed.
Is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas.
A ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions.
Study of water in Urban areas and how to treat it. (Pollution)
The study of the physical form and structure of urban places.
The process by which the population of cities grow.
Significance: More and more areas have become urban over the course of history. Now the United States is fairly split between rural and urban areas dividing the land mas of the nation.
Population that lives in Urban areas. (Cities)
Most important centers of economic power and wealth.
area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD; mixture of growth, change, and decline
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Significance: This is one of the most prominent factors that a service company would take into consideration when deciding where to locate.
the urban equivalent of a landscape




Module 1 Cultural diversity and socialising Unit 1

Building a relationship

Briefing 1 Cross-cultural understanding ( I ) 2 Welcoming visitors 3 Small talk: keeping the conversation going

Unit 2

Culture and entertainment

Briefing 1 Cross-cultural understanding (2) 2 Inviting, and accepting or declining 3 Eating out

1 1 1 4 6 10 10 10 11 16

Unit 8

Briefing 1 Holding the audience's attention 2 Structure (2) The main body 3 Listing information 4 Linking ideas 5 Sequencing

Unit 9

Unit 3


Could I leave a message?

Briefing 1 Preparing to make a telephone call 2 Receiving calls 3 Taking and leaving messages 4 Asking for and giving repetition 5 The secretarial barrier

Unit 4

Good to hear from you again!

Briefing 1 Cross-cultural communication on the telephone (1) 2 Setting up appointments 3 Changing arrangements 4 Ending a call

Unit 5

Unfortunately there's a problem ...

Briefing 1 Cross-cultural communication on the telephone (2) 2 Problem-solving on th e telephone 3 Complaints

Module 3 Unit 6

18 18 19 20 23 24 27 27 27 29

32 33 36 36 36 36 38


Planning and getting started

Briefing 1 Presentation technique and preparation 2 The audience 3 Structure (1) The introduction

Unit 7


Image, impact and making an • • ImpreSSIOn

Briefing 1 Using visual aids: general principles 2 Talking about the content of visual aids 3 Describing change

43 43 43 45

46 50 50 50 SI SS

The end is near ... this is the end

Briefing 1 Structure (3) The end 2 Summarising and concluding 3 Questions and discussion

Module 4 Unit 10

Module 2

The middle of the presentation

Making meetings effective

Sorry to interrupt, but ...

Briefing 1 The structure of decision-making 2 Stating and asking for opinion 3 Interrupting and handling interruptions

Unit 12

What do you mean by ... ?

Briefing 1 Asking for and giving clarification 2 Delaying decisions 3 Ending the meeting

Module 5 Unit 13

61 62

65 65 65 66 6R


Briefing 1 What makes a good meeting? 2 Chairing a meeting 3 Establishing the purpose of a meeting

Unit 11

5R 58 58 59 59

74 74 74 76 7R 83 83 83

84 86

91 9]

91 93



Know what you want

98 98 98

Briefing 1 Types of negotiation 2 Preparation for a negotiation 3 Making an opening statement

100 101

Unit 14


Getting what you can

Briefing 1 Bargaining and making concessions 2 Accepting and confirming 3 Summarising and looking ahead

Unit 15

Not getting what you don't want

Briefing 1 Types of negotiator 2 Dealing with conflict 3 Rejecting 4 Ending the negotiation

Optional case studies


105 107 109 112 112

112 112

115 117 119

• •


This second edition provides improvements to the overall design and appearance of the book as well as various small changes and updating of material. The most important content change is the introduction of more practice exercises in response to users' requests. See the paragraph Quick Communication Check below.

Aims of the course The course is intended as an opportunity for intermediate-level students to develop confidence and fluency in five key communication contexts: socialising, telephoning, presenting information, participating in meetings and handling negotiations. The course has twin aims: improving communication technique and developing and consolidating the target language appropriate to the above communication contexts. A further key aim is the development of effective learning strategies for both language and communication skills. The teacher's role in this is critical. It is important that certain principles are upheld, such as the need for preparation of communication tasks, the importance of practice, and the need for linking the teaching objectives with perceived professional needs. The students should be encouraged to reflect on their own performance, to identify ways in which it can be improved, and to monitor both the accuracy of their language and the effectiveness of their communication skills. The course is primarily geared towards improving speaking and listening skills, though reading and writing tasks are also included. Part of the method for the development of fluency and confidence in speaking is the importance of involving students in as much discussion as possible. As a skills-driven course this is especially suitable, as students are encouraged to make their

I I n

own suggestions based on their own experience, however limited. There is plenty of scope for eliciting students' ideas, impressions and opinions. Classes should be geared towards as much participation as possible. Everyone has experience of all five of the skill areas treated in the course, whether in English or in their own language.

Structure The five modules can be studied consecutively as a conventional course. However, with some students a module may be studied where specific training in one area of communication skills is required. There is, nonetheless, a certain logic in the order of the five modules. The first module, Socialising, is a scene setter. It establishes the teaching and learning approach used in the course. The second module, Telephoning, treats a fairly restrictive amount of language as is typical in telephoning. The third, Presentations, is in many ways the core of the course, as skills involved in presenting are often a feature of participating in meetings and negotiations. However, the more interactive nature of the latter two contexts is reflected in the nature of the material in the final two modules. These two, and the Presentations module, contain many recommendations for effective communication strategies and at the same time build up the students' repertoire in terms of language. The final module, Negotiations, is perhaps, un surprisingly, the most challenging in terms of language. In many ways, but partly because the language is more complex, effective study of the final module is dependent on having already dealt with the previous module on Meetings.

listening material

Reading texts

There are over 80 different recordings in the book. The tasks accompanying them range from initial general comprehension points to understanding important details. The first listening typically concentrates on meaning. Students are asked to identify key information. Check carefully that these main points are understood. It is important that meaning is established before students are asked to think about language. As a general rule, teaching aims should keep these two activities separate. The distinction should be made clear to the students and should influence students' developing learning strategies. The second listening task normally focuses on the target language for the unit in question. Encourage students to repeat what they hear and to make notes. Writing down new language normally aids recall, but not all students can be persuaded to do this. In any case, avoid slowing down lessons for excessive writing of models from the tape. Occasional writing - and even use of dictation - can be helpful. Some of the later listening material in the final module on Negotiations is more difficult than the earlier modules.

Throughout the book, certain principles relating to efficient reading techniques should be upheld. Explain that it is not necessary to understand every word. The objective is to understand the main ideas. Detailed reading or studying of texts is neither desirable nor is it required. The tasks accompanying reading texts mainly relate to the identification of key points and are designed to stimulate students' thoughts and ideas on the topics included.

Pronunciation work There is little overt treatment of pronunciation features in the course. However, it is an option to include this aspect of language training with this material. It is recommended that if you want to spend additional time to focus on features of phonology, the course does offer good, authenticsounding dialogues. These can be used to sensitise students to the implications of stress, intonation, pausing and thought groups. For further guidance on these aspects, see Speaking Clearly (Cambridge University Press, 1991).

language Checklists The Language Checklist at the end of each unit is a summary of some of the key language that has been introduced in the unit or that can be used in practice tasks and role plays. The Language Checklists are not prescriptive and offer only a sample of the sort of language that can be used. They are included as• a support to students, as a possible self-study resource and as quick reference material. Always check that students understand the phrases offered and that they are able to pronounce them correctly. Remind them that they can be selective, choosing the phrases they prefer, or even alternatives not included in the Checklists. The Checklists are useful in preparation for the role plays in each unit. Students should also refer back to previous Checklists when they need to.

Quick Communication Check Each unit now includes a page of exercises designed to offer an additional check on students' learning. The exercises reflect the target language in each unit, typically represented in Language Checklists. These exercises are desinged for selfstudy use, having an integrated answer key on each page. The Quick Communication Check thus serves as further practice, as consolidation, and as a simple test to check student's learning.

Skills Checklists


The Skills Checklists summarise the key points of technique for effective communication skills as introduced in each unit. In some cases, further points are included, either for discussion in class or as additional recommendations for students to think about in their own time. Like the Language Checklists, the Skills Checklists are intended as a source of reference for future work, especially in preparing for telephone calls, presentations, meetings or negotiations where the language used will be English.

Most units will take around three hours. Approximate recommended timings are given in the Teacher's Book for each section of each unit. Guide times include neither any material marked as optional nor the Transfer tasks. The latter require homework or out-of-class preparation. The times suggested are approximate and will vary according to the preferences and competence of the students involved, as well as student numbers. It is important not to labour the material. The tasks are intended to be fairly quick, but use your discretion. Clearly with extended role plays or where preparation is involved there may be some variation beyond the times suggested.

Transfer tasks In most cases the aim of the Transfer tasks is to have students practise target language in defined communication contexts that relate directly to their own immediate environment, their home, their studies or their work. In this way the Transfers aim to create a bridge between the classroom and the student's world .


... . . , . I·ISlng ,

-- - - - - - , - -_


- _c__

- , __





• Cross-cultural understanding (1) • Welcoming visitors

• Small talk: keeping the conversation • gOing


1:1 situation

This module looks at issues relating to working with professionals from other countries where cultural misunderstandings may cause embarrassment. It relates closely to the later module on Meetings. This unit focuses on developing personal relationships and mutual understanding between business partners. Unit 2 looks more directly at socialising within a business context, invitations, entertaining, and eating out. The unit begins with an ice-breaker as a chance to develop small talk, before looking specifically at working with British and American people, together with suggestions on preparing for contacts with other countries. Knowledge and understanding is essential in order to get on well with one's partners from other countries. Socialising is instrumental in this: it is about

Many of the activities which lend themselves to discussion and brainstorming will require more support from you. Prompt and elicit thoughts from the student and feed in your own ideas and those included here. There are two role plays where you will need to take a part, as well as two dialogues based on flow charts where you will need to take the right-hand role in eventual practice. With more competent speakers, you may be able to add variations, thus increasing the need for spontaneity on the part of the student.

making relations. The second section deals with welcoming visitors and helping them to feel at ease. This theme is used as a lead-in to small talk, which is developed in the final section of the unit and again in Unit 2. Small talk is looked at in terms of various topics and how to keep conversation going. There is a lot of scope for discussion of students' own ideas in the unit. The Transfer includes an option on a small research project. Think about the extent to which your students may travel to other countries or are likely to receive visitors. This is important. In the latter case, discuss which aspects of the students' own country, town or culture might be interesting or unusual for a visitor.

Timing: 3 hours

1 Cross-cultural understanding (1) 1 Circulate the groups, prompting comment on the photograph. Different students will comment on different things, but draw out ideas on: • where it might be (country / hotel/factory / office, etc.) • why they are there (for a meeting / seminar / new venture / chance / tourism, etc.) • what kind of relationships are represented (friends / new business partners / same company, etc.) • topics of conversation (business/ nonbusiness, hobbies, interests, small talk such as weather, travel, plans, the hotel, travel, colleagues, other countries, etc. ) • what they won't be talking about ...


Cultural diversity and socialising

For five minutes, get groups of students to act out a typical situation as shown in the photograph. Join in yourself, exaggerating your speech patterns, encouraging a playful and humorous approach to the exercise. Then discuss issues arising from the illustration: • Humour. Ask to what extent humour enters into business relationships - or even jokes. In some countries, such as Britain, joking is often used to relieve tension. In others, such as Germany, that might be regarded as flippant or unprofessional. Sean O'Casey, the Irish playwright, said that the Irish turn a crisis into a joke and a joke into a crisis. • Women in business. In which cultures is this unlikely? Where are women having an increasingly prominent role in business? (Italy and the UK are examples, although less than 10% of company executives in the UK are women.) In some countries, despite legislation aimed at improving career opportunities for women, few reach the top (Norway, for example, although the field of politics is an exception) .. • Alcohol and business. In cultures where alcohol is taboo, this is, of course, not an issue. However, while it is not unusual to have a glass of wine or a beer with lunch in Europe, it is very bad form to drink too much. In Italy, a nation of wine drinkers, it is very unusual to drink outside meal times, whereas in Sweden it is not unusual to have a beer with colleagues after work. • Coffee. In many countries, coffee and business seem inextricably linked. Coffee seems to be what cements relationships, everywhere from Saudi Arabia to Argentina, via North America and Norway. • Tea. In China and Japan, tea is more popular. 2 After ten minutes' discussion of these issues to set the theme for the module, go on to the reading task. Ask students to read the text and quickly decide what is the main idea expressed in the text. Answer: Everybody is different. Signals mean different things to people of different cultures.

3 If necessary, allow a second reading to find the answers. a) Eye contact is important. Not maintaining eye contact indicates someone who is unfriendly, insecure, untrustworthy, inattentive and impersonal. But it is considered rude to stare. Americans signal interest and comprehension by bobbing their heads or grunting. b) Similar to Americans where eye contact is concerned. The English (sic)><- pay strict attention to a speaker, listen carefully, and blink their eyes to let the speaker know he / she has been heard and understood. c) Taught to direct their gaze at their teacher's Adam's apple or tie knot. d) A gesture of respect. e) If a person of a lower class stares at someone of a higher class. f) Anger. ><- Note: It is a small but significant point that the text, from an American source, speaks of ' the English'. Many foreigners refer to 'the English' when perhaps it would be more correct to say 'the British'. Discuss with learners what the terms Britain, the UK, Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland and England refer to. Incidentally, the British often make the same mistake when they refer to Holland, which is actually a region of the Netherlands. 4 Introduce the question by asking why some sort of research is a good idea before doing business with people from different countries or cultures. a) Elicit / Suggest that: • partnerships need to be built on trust and shared understanding • initial research can help one know more about potential partners and their country, so avoiding embarrassment. Think about possibly taboo subjects, such as: • politics in countries where open political diversity is not tolerated, or where democracy has a meaning different to your understanding of the term • talking about family relationships

Building a relationship

• •

alcohol and certain foods discussing business too early, etc.


Refer to the Skills Checklist. Fundamental things to consider include: • some basic geographical knowledge • some knowledge of political and economic conditions • religion and specific customs • public holidays • attitudes and expectations regarding entertaining visitors • business conventions. El C;) b) Introduce the recording. The speaker is an experienced negotiator, used to dealing with people from varied cultural backgrounds. He suggests seven areas that are important for someone planning to do business across a cultural frontier. Ask students to identify six of them.

Key The following seven areas are mentioned: • the actual political and economic situation - stability - trends - outlook • infrastructure - telecommunications - transport • religion / language • geography / history • culture / customs - people - food / drink / socialising • attitudes / families • business customs / conventions.

Option As a further discussion point to develop, it might be interesting to ask students if they think this type of research is as important when one is planning to receive a visitor as it is when one plans to go abroad. In many cases, similar research would be advisable in both instances.





SO if you are going on a business trip, or meeting someone from another country - perhaps a different culture - what do you need to think about? Well, it's not so obvious. I always try to know something about the actual political and economic situation in the other country the politics, the economics. I should always know something about that, about what's happening. Also if I'm going abroad, I find out a little about the infrastructure - I mean the telecommunications, the transportation, that sort of thing. And do you find out about the general background, basic information about the country? The· culture, yes. Certainly, the religion, the language - I might learn a few polite phrases - the geography, maybe a little history. And how people live, what kind of culture it is, how people socialise, food, drink, all that is very Important. What about family life? Yes, that too. How families live, if private life and business ever mix ... and also business customs and conventions. I don't want to be surprised by anything. •




Cambridge University Press 2003

End by saying the list is not closed - there are plenty of other things one could also mention.

Discussion Facilitate a very brief discussion on the value of the points included in this section. Students may identify particularly useful considerations to think about. Refer again to the Skills Checklist.



Cultural diversity and socialising

Ask again why preparation for contact across culture is important. Points to bring out include: • it is a question of courtesy that one should be interested in one's business partners and in their countries • tact and consideration are important • knowing something about your partners can save embarrassment • one will not be expected to be an expert: most people will be tolerant, so long as goodwill and good manners are evident.

Timing: 70 minutes

• length of stay / hotel, etc. • special interests / needs • reference to previous contact / other small talk. 1 Introduce the recording at Evco S.A. and play once. Elicit answers: a) The meeting is quite informal. They use first names, they interrupt each other a little and generally seem relaxed.

1'-1 0

b) They have never met: Louise and Klaus have spoken on the phone a couple of times. c) Klaus wants to buy some fish to take home.

2 Welcoming visitors

1-1 0 2 Play the recording again. Given the

Welcoming visitors involves making people feel relaxed and comfortable in a new environment. An essential part of this is small talk - or making conversation which is not directly concerned with reaching a business deal. The theme of small talk is developed in more detail later in the unit. Read the opening questions, making sure students understand the focus of this section . • Elicit suggested answers: What happens when a visitor arrives with an appointment to visit a company? • goes to reception • introduces himself / herself / states reason for visit (who?) • is taken to / met by the right person. What are the typical stages of the first meeting? Suggest the first stage to the students: welcome and introductions. What might follow? Use the board or OHP to illustrate this structure.

Stages of a meeting Welcome and introductions

I Small talk / Settling in

I Preliminaries / Plan for the visit


Begin discussions

situation, Louise's interruption is probably acceptable, as is the immediate use of first names. On the other hand, Lars begins to talk about the programme for the day quite quickly. Poor Klaus! This is a bit soon, surely! Let's hope they allow their visitor more time to relax with more small talk and a sit-down.

Option Decide whether to spend more time on the language in this extract. Perhaps highlight language for: introductions / questions about the trip / taking of coat / offering refreshments / referring to programme for the day, etc. Notice too how the small talk begins in discussing the weather and the fish. Ask learners how the conversation could have developed - if Lars had not decided to get down to business.

Note: The participants in this conversation are lucky. Klaus asks about fish and the ice is broken. Sometimes getting conversation going can be difficult. Point out that the module contains ideas for dealing with problems like this, beginning with the next section in this unit. Tapescript KLAUS:

What conversations take place (in stage two above)? • offer of refreshments • questions about trip • first visit / previous visits


Hello, my name's Klaus Ervald. I've an appointment ... Oh hello, Klaus, I'm Louise Scott. We've spoken on the phone a couple of times. Nice to meet you.

Building a relationship












It's nice to be here. Oh -let me take your coat. Thanks. Oh, here's Lars. Lars, this is Klaus, he's just arrived. Hello, Klaus. Pleased to meet you ... and welcome to Evco. Thanks. Is this your first visit to Sweden? No, I've been to Stockholm two or three times but it's my first visit to Malmo. Klaus, let me get you a drink. Yes, I'd like a tea, if possible, thanks. Sure. With milk, or lemon? With lemon, please - and sugar. Right. Did you have a good trip? Absolutely no problems. That's good. You did fly, didn't you - to Gothenberg? Yes, that's right, then I drove down here. Oh that's good. Malmo can be a little wet at this time of the year ... you'll have to come back in the summer. Oh, I'd like that. I always like coming to Sweden - and ah! A problem! I need some fish. Can you advise me? I always take back some fish, some salmon. Oh, yes, gravlax. And pickled herring too, in tomato sauce and the other one with onions and dill and pepper. Can you suggest a good place to get some? Gravlax? It's always wonderful ... the airport might be the best place. And the herring, too. Okay, I'll have to get to the airport early. If I'm late, I might miss the plane. I can't go home without the fish! No! Certainly not. Well, we'll get you some for lunch anyway! Okay, here's some tea. Oh, you're very kind. SO, apart from fish, can I explain the programme - I think we sent you an outline for the day - if you agree, we could start with a video which explains


some of our services and then we could have a look at a few reports on • campaIgns ... PHOTOCOPIABLE

© Camb ridge University Press 2003

3 Explain that the focus here is on offering assistance and stating one's needs. Start by asking the students to suggest ways to: • offer assistance • accept or decline such offers • state one's needs. 1- ' 1(~) Then introduce the situation.

Play the tape once. Key a) to send an email b) to send some flowers to his ex-wife

c) drink d) newspaper e) taxi

Tapescript PETER:








Yes, that's all right. I'm a little early I can wait a few minutes. Well, can I get you a drink of something - a tea or a coffee, perhaps? No, I'm fine thanks - but there is one thing - I'd like to send an email, a file on this disk, if I may - it's rather urgent. Yes, of course. You can use my computer. Thanks, that would be good. Let me show you ... Here you are. You can use this. Thank you very much. Anything else? Do you need anything to read, the Economist or something, while you're waiting? No, it's okay. I'll send this email then I can prepare some work while I'm waiting. Right, I'll leave you for a moment. Thanks. Oh, one other thing, I need to send some flowers to my ex-wife. Today is the fifth anniversary of our divorce. She didn't like all the travelling I did. I think some flowers from Australia would be rather appropriate, don't you?


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Cultural diversity and socialising

STEPHANIE: Er, perhaps! Right, I'll get you a number for Interflora or something like that. Maybe you have a special message you'd like to send with the flowers? Yes, I'll think of one.


C9 Cambridge University Press 2003

language focus option If you think it appropriate, ask students to identify the phrases in the dialogue which concern offering assistance and talking about one's needs. Note: students are likely to know phrases like I'd like ... / Co uld you get me ... but are less likely to use introductory expressions like There is one thing I need or I wonder if you could help me.

Practice 1 Procedure • Whole class perform the • dialogue in pairs. • Switch roles and repeat. • You prompt where necessa ry, listening to parts from three or four pairs. • Give group feedback, commenting on good language and problems. • Select a couple of pairs to perform for the class. • Finally, play the model version on the tape and discuss points arising.

language focus option Use the tape to focus on language of stating needs, offering assistance. Tapescript Hello, my name's Henrik van der Linden from Amtel. I have an appointment with Sandra Bates. RECEPTIONIST: Oh, yes, Mr van der Linden. Welcome to Datalink. Ms Bates will be along in a few minutes. She's just finishing a meeting. Can I get you something to drink?




No thanks, I'm fine. Er, but I wonder if I could use a phone? RECEPTIONIST: Yes, of course. And anything else ... if you need to send an email or anything ... VISITOR: No, it's okay, just the phone. RECEPTIONIST: Right, well you can use this one. VISITOR: Thanks. AHa. (a few minutes later) VISITOR: Pas du tout. .. Au revoir. Thank you very much. RECE PTIONIST: Not at all. If there's anything else you need, please ask. VISITOR: Yes, I was wondering how far is it to the station? RECEPTIONIST: It's about two miles - ten minutes by taxi. Shall I book one? VISITOR: Er, yes, thank you. That would be good. Can we say four o'clock? RECEPTIONIST: Right, I'll do that. Oh, I think Ms Bates is free now. Shall J take you to her office? VISITOR: Thanks. I'HOTOCOI'IABLE

q) Ca mbridge University

rr~s s


Timing: 15 minutes

3 Small talk: keeping the conversation going Introduce the section. Remind students that small talk is always useful: • at the beginning of a meeting, welcoming a VISItor • at other moments in a business relationship. Elicit suggestions for: • during breaks • meals • social occasions • • eventngs • moving from one place to another. Ask what topics are useful for small talk. Remind students that conversation normally arises from the immediate physical environment: the weather, buildings and places, hotels, arrival and departure, meals, the time of day, entertainment, etc. or flows •

Building a relationship

from the conversational context. Write on the board the topics students suggest. Suggest that some subjects are best avoided, but generally there are many which can help to build up personal as well as professional relationships. In any conversation, the answers to questions and the comments that follow can provide a leadin to the next comment - or even the next topic in a conversation. Effective conversation requires that speakers recognise and pick up on these leads. Conversation proceeds on the basis of clues in previous sentences or in the immediate context. Additional points you may wish to mention: • small talk helps develop good relations and a good atmosphere • small talk happens between casual acquaintances, people who meet in the course of their work, perhaps engaged in different fields , or staying in the same hotel or travelling on the same plane.

I- IC;:: 1 Following this initial introduction, introduce the recording. Play the first version once. Elicit students' answers to the questions. a) He doesn't respond to the woman's comment. It appears as if he doesn't care or isn't listening. Go through the explanation in the Student's Book. Make sure students understand the meaning of sllpplementary question. A supplementary question refers to the same topic. 1·-1 (;) b) Elicit suggestions for a better version of

the conversation. Then play the model answer on the recording.


First version MANAGER: HEMPER:


Is this your first visit here? No, in fact the first time I came was for a trade fair. We began our Southeast Asian operations here at the 2003 Exhibition. Shall we have a look round the plant before lunch?

Second version MANAGER:

Is this your first visit here?






No, in fact the first time I came was for a trade fair. We began our Southeast Asian operations here at the 2003 Exhibition. Ah yes, I remember the exhibition well. So it was very successful for you, was it? Well, we made a lot of useful contacts, not least yourselves. Of course ... now, shall we have a look round the plant before lunch?


© Cambridge University Press 2003

2 This exercise could be done as self-study or homework.

Key a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

Well, I hope you like it. That's good. Oh, that's a pity. There's such a lot to see. Yes, I'd love to. That's very kiqd. Thank you. Oh dear, I'm sorry to hear that. What was the problem? Hmm. I hope you didn't feel too bad.

Timing: 15 minutes 1'- '1("" 3 Play each extract in turn. a) i = D, ii = B, iii = A, iv = C.

b) Elicit a range of suggestions from the whole class, allowing some ideas to run for a few sentences, taking contributions from different class members. Occasionally go back to the recording again and repeat, allowing the conversation to take a different course. Here are suggestions for how the conversations might continue: i) Further questioning on social and political affairs, relations with neighbouring states, next elections, economic conditions for businesses, foreign investment, etc. ii) Observations on personal leisure preferences, liking for or aversion to exercise / preference for watching rather than doing sport, etc. 7


Cultural diversity and socialising

iii) Further questioning on the vacation in the States, more detail, reference to one's own visit(s) to the States, opinions, other comments on vacations, preferred types, etc.

Extract 2 MAN:

iv) Questions about the family, ages of children, partner's work, etc. Discussion of the impact of work on family life. c) Possible remarks to elicit or suggest include: i) Depending on the acceptability of political conversation - a difficult area of conversation where some political systems are concerned - the discussion could easily lead to more information and comment on recent changes, future prospects, or refer to personalities involved. Note: Politics is an interesting area: some foreigners can be baffled by British people's criticism of the British monarchy, for example. Some leaders and some political systems, reviled abroad, may be revered by sections of their own people.

ii) Different cultures have different perceptions of leisure: a drink with friends and associates in a bar can be anathema to some cultures where alcohol is taboo. Likewise, regular physical exercise is not everyone's idea. See also iii. iii) Leisure activities and holidays in particular may be totally different for different people. iv) Discussions on family, etc. may be unwelcome between some cultures. Americans or Europeans asking about aspects of family life might be unacceptable to Saudis, for example. Tapescript Extract 1 WOMAN:





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SO how are things going generally now, after the recent political changes? Much better, I think generally people are more optimistic and the government should be all right now. There's a lot of popular support for government policies.

I like the thought of sport ... it's actually doing it I can't seem to manage. I know 1 should, you know, keep fit, eat less, go to a gym, use the hotel swimming pool ... but somehow I'd rather sit here at the bar and have a chat with whoever comes down. I spend all day working ...

Extract 3 MAN:


SO how do you usually spend your vacations? Do you stay at home or go abroad? Oh, generally we travel. We were in the States last year, we went to California and to Arizona, we visited a few National Parks ...

Extract 4 WOMAN:

Well of course, I like working. True, I travel a lot. That's not always so good, because it's difficult for the family. I've got children - they're four and six. My husband, he stays home and looks after them.


© Cambridge Universit y Press 2003

Timing: 15 minutes

Practice 2 Have learners work in pairs to talk non-stop about the four pictures on page 11 of the Student's Book. Put a time limit on each one. Students should switch immediately to a different picture when you call time.

Fluency exercise option Develop this exercise, perhaps as a warmer or short fluency exercise at other stages of a lesson, using your own photographs from magazines, or photocopied images projected onto a wall using an OHT. A variation on this is to use flashcards with various topics on them, such as: travel sport politics / international politics tourism in art, theatre, music food your country

Building a relationship

The various topics - or others suggested by the class - are written (or represented in pictures) on flash cards and distributed among the class. Have them stand up and circulate, discussing the topic on one of the cards with anyone in the room. When you call 'change' they have to discuss the other student's topic. When you shout 'change partner' they have to talk to someone else, and so on. Leave two to three minutes between each call.

Role play option An option is for you to play host or visitor and perform a role play with one or more students in front of the rest of the class. You can throw in added complications and difficulties that learners would probably not include - where's the toilet? (washroom in American English), some other difficulties - you need to cancel a hotel booking, hire a car, buy a map, photocopy something, etc.

Timing: 15 minutes

Transfer Language Checklist Students should study the Language and Skills Checklist before practising the role plays on page 11. Tell them that the Language Checklists in the book are usually only a snapshot of all the available alternatives. Check pronunciation and comprehension of what is included. Use this same procedure throughout the book for both Checklists.

Skills Checklist The Skills Checklist is about preparing for meetings with partners from other countries. It includes suggestions for developing effective cross-cultural understanding and builds on those aspects introduced in the first section of the unit. Spend a few minutes discussing the recommendations and elicit students' comments and any other suggestions.

Timing: 10 minutes

Role plays Encourage students to make notes from the Language Checklist if they need to. They should study their role cards for a minute or two, then act out the role play in pairs. The aim is to develop fluency and confidence in handling arrivals and engaging in small talk. You should try to note any problems you hear and refer to them in feedback. If there is an odd number of students, you should take one of the roles.

Timing: 15 minutes x 2

This is an opportunity for students to put the ideas suggested in the Skills Checklist into practice with a specific country in mind. They could work individually, in pairs or in groups. Suggest they use a range of sources for finding out information: • Published sources - books, guidebooks - travel information • Official bodies - embassies - consulates - cultural centres - government offices and agents • Commercial offices - travel agents - marketing consultants - Import and Export offices and agents • People - colleagues who may know the place in question - nationals from the country concerned - students' own knowledge. •

Option Develop the above into a mini-project for individual or group presentation at a later stage. This could be combined with Module 3 on Presentations.






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u ture an entertainment II II

Cross-cultural understanding (2) Inviting, and accepting or declining

Briefing The unit opens with a short reading text designed to emphasise the significance of cultural diversity. Implicit in the text is the warning that working with people from other countries requires an awareness and understanding of differences and that effective partnerships are rarely born out of treating everyone the same. The rest of the unit covers socialising in a business or professional context. Section 2 comprises talking about social events and making arrangements. Practice activitie~ include writing a letter deferring a social engagement. The final section looks at eating out and making conversation, linking with the section on small talk in the previoLis unit. There are two role plays, one designed to practise making arrangements, the other set in a restaurant and designed to include functional language in the restaurant context and an opportunity to practise developing small talk.

language option The language in this unit covers talking about entertainment options, inviting, accepting and rejecting invitations, language relevant to dining out and small talk. You may choose to focus on the language used once the texts have been dealt with in the ways specifically indicated in the Student's Book.


Eating out

will require the 'host' to do some explaining for the 'guest'. The same is true for the second role play, set in a restaurant, where using a local menu would be the most realistic approach.

1:1 situation Naturally you will have to participate in practice exercises and role plays. Do not labour discussion. The language used in the unit is relatively simple. There are many alternatives which could be used equally well. Elicit alternatives and praise appropriate language. Co rrect as necessary.

Timing: 3 hours

1 Cross-cultural understanding (2) Referring to the illustration, introduce the concept of cultural diversity. Ensure that it is understood. Ask students what it is that makes people culturally diverse, eliciting a range of features, such as conventions and customs, language, history, religion, historical experience, social systems, geography, regional influences and other features. 1 Have the class read the text once, without attention to detail. Summarv, B is the best. The other two are, according to the text, wrong. 2 A second reading should enable students to answer the more detailed questions.

Role plays For the role plays, a little planning is necessary. For the first, try to get hold of genuine local materials such as a newspaper or a Tourist Office publication advertising local entertainment. This 10


a) They are not ' universal'. b) Pay-far-performance has failed in Africa because there are particular unspoken rules

Culture and entertainment

about the sequence and timing of reward and promotions. c) MBO has generally failed in southern European subsidiaries of multinationals because managers have not wanted to conform to the abstract nature of preconceived policy guidelines. d) Human-resource management is a typically Anglo-Saxon doctrine that is difficult to translate to other cultures. I t borrows from economics the idea that human beings are ' resources' like physical and monetary resources. It assumes individual development. In countries without these beliefs, this concept is hard to grasp and unpopular once understood. e) International managers' culture of origin, the culture in which they are working, the culture of the organisation employing them. f) Authority, bureaucracy, creativity, good fellowship, verification and accountability. Follow up with an explanation of any of the key vocabulary in the text, inviting students' questions. Check that students have understood the text without getting bogged down in wanting to understand absolutely everythillg. Make sure they do not lose sight of the importance of understanding the main ideas in a text rather than every word.

Option Spend a few minutes discussing bridly the meaning of the management philosophies referred to in the opening paragraph. Elicit students' ideas and comments b efore offering your own. Remember that according to Trompenaars they are of little use when applied to differen t cultures. You may wish to discuss this point further.

Timing: 25 minutes


2 Inviting, and accepting or declining Elicit ideas in response to the photographs and students' own views on what is likely to provide acceptable local entertainment for professionals visiting their home town. Typical ideas are arts and cultural events such as theatre, cinema, concerts, exhibitions, famous monuments and buildings, or sports events, golf, tourist trips, excursions, restaurants and bars, etc., as well as more private corporate hospitality such as parties, receptions, and possibly invitations to someone's home - though this is highly culture dependent and may be more common in the USA, the UK and some parts of Continental Europe than elsewhere.

1-I C,i) 1 Play example 1 once and elicit answers to the three questions. a) a concert, play or show b) a play would be good c) the host will find out what is on and call back. . 2 Play example 2. Elicit and check the answers given here: a) an informal gathering then a meal in a restaurant b) accepts wi th pleasure c) they will meet at the hotel at about 7.

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language focus option Highlight the indirect, very polite invitation in the first example. It allows for the possibility of the visitor declining the invitation. It is a non-specific invitation expressed in three sentences: I WIlS wonderillg if we could fix sOlllcthing lip for

you when YOli come? Would YOIl bc Fec 011 Monday evening? TIyol/like we cOIl/d do something togeth er? In the second recording, ask students which sentence offers the visitor a similar opportunity to turn down the invitation. The answer is:

T don't know iI yo II havc al1Y other plans this evening?



Cultural diversity and socialising

Humour in the second example Pick up on the humour in the second exchange. The host implies that the entertainment might go on all night. Ask your class about the cultural implications here, or the possible relationship of the people involved. Perhaps they know each other and have a common sense of humour. If not, the joke would be inappropriate or not understood.



Extract 1

Example 1 HOST:





1 Activity opera Reason for rejection doesn't like opera Comments very direct / sounds rude 2 Activity dinner party Reason for rejection has to return to Zurich Comments polite / formal 3 Activity tennis Reason for rejection can't play / wooden leg Comments humorous / sarcastic

Well, I was wondering if we could fix something up for you when you come? Would you be free on Monday evening? If you like we could do something together? That would be very nice, what do you have in mind? Well, we could go to see a concert or a play - go to a show, of some kind? I think the theatre would be interesting. I'd like that. Oh, that's good. We'll do that then. I'll find out exactly what's on, then I'll call you.




Extract 2 HOST:


Example 2 HOST:




and then tonight we've planned a little gathering here, an informal gettogether, if you'd like to join us. You'd meet some other colleagues, then we plan to go out to dinner together - a well-known restaurant. I don't know if you have any other plans this evening? No, not at all. No plans. Well, that sounds like a good combination, talking and eating ... SO, if you like, we'll meet here again at about seven - and take it from there. Yes, that's perfect. . ..

I'H{H OCO I' 1,1 HU







I-I ® 3 Play the three extracts, one at a time. Elicit the answers below:

We're planning a small party on Saturday, a dinner party. We'd like to invite you, in the evening, I don't know if you can join us? Er, that would be very nice, I'd like that, but unfortunately I have to return to Zurich the same evening. I'm so sorry about that ... Oh, dear. That's a shame. Let's hope you can stay longer the next time you come. Yes, it's a pity, but this time it's impossible ...

Extract 3

© Cambridge University Press 2003

Timing: 15 minutes

There's a very nice opera on at the City Hall tomorrow. If you like, I could book you a ticket. Mozart's Don Giovanni. No, I don't like listening to opera. Oh, is there anything you'd like me to fix up for you, a meal in a restaurant? No, it's okay. It's not necessary.

SO, Viktor, would you like to join us this evening for a game of tennis? Tennis!? I've got a wooden leg! It's ten years since I played tennis. I think a walk to a restaurant would be enough for me ... You never know! Tennis could be just what you need. It would kill me.

1'110 rc leOl'1 ,\ ilL /-

© Cambridge University Press 2003

Culture and entertainment

4 Check on individual pairs, prompting where necessary. Ask for some examples to be given for the whole class to hear. Discourage any writing - it should be spontaneous. Students can use the listings extracts to make their invitations, or use real examples of entertainments on offer locally. You will need to supply a newspaper or guide - it does not have to be in English. 8 3 Finally, play the recording of model versions and discuss points arising.

Tapescript Extract 1 INVITATION:



Shall we do something together tomorrow night - if you're free? We'd like to invite you to a show or take you round the town a little, or have a meal or something. That sounds a good idea. I think I'd like to have a look around the town. That would be nice, but unfortunately I've already made plans for tomorrow night. I plan to visit a friend I haven't seen for some time.



We have arranged a meal in a restaurant this evening. Most of us will be there. Would you like to join us? I'd like that very much. Thank you. Er, thank you, but I'll have to say no this time. I have to leave very early tomorrow. I think I'd like an early night.




If you like, we can fix up some entertainment for you. What sort of thing would you like to do while you're here? I don't know, what do you recommend? I'd like anything at all, though I'd prefer not to be too late. That's very kind, but I am going to be very busy - I'm not sure I'll have


Ca mbridge University Press l003

Timing: 15 minutes

Practice 1 Students should work in pairs to construct a dialogue based on the flow chart. A recording of a model answer is provided, featuring a conversation at the end of the working day between two business associates, one of whom is visiting his partner in Lima, Peru. Ceviche is raw fish marinaded in lemon juice.

Tapescript HOST: VISITOR:









time. Perhaps we can leave any plans until later.


Extract 2





Have you tried the local cuisine? No - not yet, but I've heard it's very good. Yes, in particular you should try ceviche. Raw fish marinaded in lemon juice. Hmmm. Sounds interesting! I've heard there are a lot of good local dishes. Yes - and we have some very good restaurants. Would you like to visit one? We can try some of these specialities. Oh, yes, of course, I'd like that very much. Right, so do you like fish? Oh, yes - I do, very much. I've heard that the fish is very special in Lima. That's true. So, we'll go to one of the best fish restaurants we've got. Shall I meet you at your hotel this evening? That'd be good, fine, thank you. What time? Er... Shall we say 8.30? Perfect. Okay, we'll .,. we'll meet again tonight then. Yeah, 8.30 at your hotel. See you there. Thanks very much. See you later. I'll get back to the hotel now, I'll get a taxi. Okay, sure. Bye for now.


© Cambridge University Press 2003

Timing: 10 minutes 13 :'.-

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Cultural diversity and socialising

Option: correspondence

2 Possible self-study or homework activity. Introduce the email and explain any details that are not clear or any problems in understanding the email.

Contrast the brevity of emails with letter correspondence. If you wish, use the examples below to talk about letter-writing conventions, in terms of layout and language. The letters, of course, are more formal than the emails and the style convention more rigorous. Although the letter is formal, the first name is used in the initial salutation after Dear. This is common and probably indicates that the writer / addressee use first names on the telephone. Note the opening paragraph in the letter.

Here is a model answer to the email reply.

1.1"1. ' John, Thanks for your email and attachment. Thanks also for your invitation. Sorry, but I have to leave Munich early. I hope we can meet again perhaps in London at the end of the month. Meanwhile, see you in Munich. Maria Saans I' - : , ~ ./ '.,

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Although the letter is formal, but first name is used in the initial salutation after Dear. This is common and probably indicates that they already use first names on the telephone. Note too the paragraphing in the letter.


I 2;0 CHARING CROS S ROAD LONDON WCI 4RD Tel ++44-208 765 J29~ Fax ++44 ::OR 765 174Y

www.interJink.colll •

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» MilTia Saans position -~,... Accounts Manager

subject of ienn

South Australia Bank. of Commerce

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N:~WSouth Wales 2022


archive _ .... references • Our ref. GF6

15 March 20-

Your ref

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dat:e wi t!; month name' written cut

Dear Maria, . Munich International Communications Fair

capital letter --i"""'" »Following onr telephone call I confirm that we will meet at the Interlink stand . aithe Munich Fajr on Thursday 24 May 20- sometime during the morn ing. ":'



I lookf~rwardto ihe opponunity to discuss some of our products and services

firs t pa,agraph referen ce and prevIou s


'.' wllhyou .mdafuconfident that there will be plenty to interest you. I enclose · · '.:$pille irifQrtn?tion Wllich you may like to look at before you come to Munich. ,


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ftWQilld be v~!:y"nice if we could meet soc ially while in Munich. I wonder if , ,yqU'would qeft'ee.tojoin me and some colleagues for a meal in the city on the Thursday evening? We are planning to meet at around 8.30 for dinner at the Hilton Hotel. Do let me know if you can join us. and of course wc would bepleased iryou were able to bring a colleague or partner.

'. We look fgrward to meeting you and do call if we can he of any assistance qu ite informa l ending

. between itOw and.lhe fair. "

ending reference and next contact


Signature --"'" ~..; ' name - position -

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© Cambridge Uni versity Pre>' J OO}

Culture and entertainment


Here is a model answer to John Callam's letter:

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South Australia Bank of Commerce ,



,' PO Box 400 Bondi Junction New South Wales 2022 AUSTRALIA ,r ,,'; ', " Tel. (02) 389 232 Fax. (02) 389 764 '; www.SABOC.com - , -- - ,

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18 March 20-

Dear John,

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Thank you foryour letter of 15 March 20 and thanks also for the '," information you. sent. I am sure we will have plenty to talk about when wemeet\n Munich. ; , Incite your suggestion that we should meet for a meal on Thursday .' eyerting.Twouldb~ very pleased to come, but unfortunately on this ". "',', occl'lsici:n J hl'j."etod~dine your invitation as I have to leave Munich , early. However, Iwillbe in London a month later and perhaps we could meet then. If this idea suits you, we can make arrangements nearer the time. In the meantime, I look forward to seeing you as agreed at the Munich Fair. " ;;Besfwishes I . "







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·m:J :§[email protected]$aboc,co.au

Timing: 20 minutes

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Cultural diversity and socialising

Role play 1


This is a simple role play that should require minimal preparation. It will help if you can provide copies of a local 'What's On' guide to entertainment in the area. Listen to students working and making notes on any language points. Provide feedback for the group as a whole. Choose a couple of pairs to perform their role play before the class.




Timing: 15 minutes SANDRA:

3 Eating out


1 Divide the class into threes and have them


brainstorm different phrases for each of the three functions indicated. WAITER:

2 Once they have done that for five minutes, redivide the class to make new teams of three consisting of individuals from each of the first three groups. Each new group compiles a list of possible phrases to complete the grid. •



Oh yeah, the venison's really good. Actually, I don't eat a lot of red meat, I'm more of a fish eater. Oh, I'd recommend the fish. Great. Well, I'll have the oysters to start. I think I'll have the shrimp. Then why don't we share a mixed seafood grill for two as the main course? That would be great. Let's have that ... And wine? Well, I prefer white wine, a dry one. Red gives me a headache. Would you care to order drinks now? Sure, in fact we're ready. To drink we'll try a bottle of Chardonnay, and water, bottled water, please. Okay, I'll take your food order In Just a moment ... SO, how does it feel to be back here - it must be a while, a year or two at least ... This looks wonderful ... How are the oysters? Just fine. What about the shrimp? Okay, a little spicy. It's very busy here. It usually is on Thursdays and on weekends ... You get a lot of business people in here, local and passing through. Ah, here comes the fish grill. Oh, it looks fantastic ... what a lot! It's very colourful. Everything okay with your meal? Perfect / great ... That was really great. •

1'-'leG; 3 Introduce the situation in a New York restaurant. Explain that the recording has four parts. Play the recording once without stopping. Play it again if necessary.



Optional language focus For weaker students only, play the recording again, stopping it at various points to highlight the functional language. Ask learners to repeat the phrases out loud as you stop the recording. Note that the dialogue is in American English. appetizer = starter, check = bill, colorful = colourful, cab = taxi




Tapescript PATRICIA:




Let's order ... er ... Can I have a menu, please? The menu ... Well, it all looks terrific. Shall we have an appetizer? Sure, in fact I'm pretty hungry ... oh, I see they have venison on the menu.




Culture and entertainment

The check, please. Here it is, thank you. Can I get this? No, no, certainly not, this one's • mme. Well, okay, thank you. I'll pay next time ... or when you come to Florida. You have to come down soon. I'd really like that. So, what'll we do now? I'll get a cab back to the hotel. No, you don't need to do that ... I'll drive you if you want ... Oh, that's great ... thanks again.





SANDRA: PH () roc '0 1'/..\ IJ I, E

© Cambridge University Press 2003

Timing: 30 minutes

Option File cards 4A and 4B contain menus. There is scope for some discussion and teaching of food and cooking vocabulary here which can be very useful to business people who eat out with

business partners. Give simple explanations where necessary for the terms on the menu. In the role play, students have the opportunity to broaden the discussion, to talk about the dishes on the menu and their preferences .

Timing: 20 minutes

Transfer This Transfer should be set as a self-study or homework activity and could be reviewed in class. Obviously a lot of time could be spent on it but how much effort and time students put into the task should be left up to them as their circumstances and needs dictate.

Skills Checklist Discuss the usefulness of the recommendations contained in the Skills Checklist for people who need to conduct business across frontiers. Elicit any comments on the Checklist, such as what might be missing from it. •

Timing: 10 minutes






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Telephoning · eave a messa e? II

Preparing to make a telephone call


Asking for and giving repetition


Receivi ng ca lis


The secretarial barrier


Taking and leaving messages

Briefing Many students at intermediate level or below will do everything possible to avoid telephoning in English. For obvious reasons, using the phone has special difficulties. However, it is worth pointing out three things before beginning this module. Firstly, most of the language used on the telephone in the business context is fairly restricted. There are numerous functions that recur repeatedly in various phone calls. As a result, the language needed in most situations is well within reach of intermediatelevel students. The second point is that with increased practice, confidence develops and so does efficient performance. The third is that it is possible to control what happens in a telephone conversation, to ask the caller to call back, to ask for repetition, to ask the other person to speak more slowly, to check and to summarise information. A recurrent theme throughout the course is that communication activities benefit from good preparation and this preparation should be conducted - as much as possible - in English. The module begins with a section on preparing for a phone call. It is important that students see the value of treating preparation as a vital part of the process of telephoning in English. A few moments thinking about the call will certainly improve performance. The middle sections of Unit 3 looks at some basic language functions common in phone calls. The final section, The secretarial barrier, is concerned with cold calls. 18

1:1 situation The unit works perfectly well with a single student. You will need to take a part in the role plays and Transfer exercises and a more directive role in discussions, eliciting as much as you can but feeding in your own opinions where relevant.

Timing: 3 hours

1 Preparing to make a telephone call 1 Begin by brainstorming on what is required in preparing to make a call. Write students' suggestions on the board. Now let students suggest what the people in the cartoon might be saying to each other. Have students act out the conversation in pairs. Elicit comments on what went wrong and highlight the lack of preparation involved in each situation. Obviously the caller has not checked the time in Tokyo when it's 11.00 a.lll. in New York. There is a time difference of ten hours! Clearlv, , one should always check times when calling different time zones.

Timing: 5 minutes i - I(';') 2 Introduce the recording of a company

director talking about how she prepares to make a telephone call. Students should tick the second, fourth and fifth suggestions. Elicit any other ideas / comments from the class. • Do not try to guess what the other person will say. No! You should do this. • Think about your objectives from the call -

Could I leave a message?

any questions you need to ask or things you need to say. Yes. • If someone calls and you are not ready for them, ask them to call back later. No. She

situations below. Talk through the example, then elicit suggestions for the other three situations. Possible answers are given here.


does not say this. • Desk preparation: prepare the desk - paper, pen, any relevant documentation, computer files. Yes. • Check recent correspondence, know the situation. Yes. • Have your diary on hand, so you can fix appointments. No. Good advice, but she does

not say this. Tapescript CLARE:

Well, if I am making a call, prediction is one thing. I have to try to guess what the other person might say - or ask. I think a lot of it is subconscious really - it's a subconscious preparation. But there are more conscious things too, like getting together any information I need, having the right file nearby, my diary, notepaper, a pen and also I might need some particular stuff on the computer screen. All that - what you call desk preparation - is important. Then in addition there's specific things like checking recent correspondence, knowing exactly what's going on - knowing what we ought to be doing - so understanding the situation or the relationship. Then finally, I would say that part of the preparation needs to be - if you're making the call you have to think about your objectives, what you want from the call, what you may need to ask or need to say. All that should be clear in your mind. So, in conclusion, I'd stress that it's terrible if you're not prepared - it sounds unprofessional and it wastes a lot of time too.

PliO roCOPI All/. f

© Cambridge University Press 2003

Timing: 5 minutes

• To talk to someone who can solve the problem. • To describe the problem and get a solution. c)

• To find out if Moda Design could be interested in selling his / her products. • To suggest that he / she sends information or visits Moda Design. d)

• To defend the company from unsolicited sales calls. • To get the name of interesting possible new suppliers. • To give an appointment to possible interesting new suppliers. • To ask for the names of companies who can speak for new suppliers (references).

Timing: 10 minutes •

2 Receiving calls \-I @ 1 Check that students understand the

change of context to incoming calls. Explain that the focus of attention is still on being well prepared. Although the called person has been caught unawares, he should respond better. Elicit ideas from the class: he could say he's busy just now, get the caller's number and ring back once he has checked what he ought to know.

Tapescript SPEAKER:

Mr Who? Oh yes, about the er ... what was it? Oh yes, the er '" the contract. You want to know what I think? Did you write to me last week? It was you, wasn't it? Or was it that other company in Geneva?

I'JlOf()UJI'1 IRI /-

3 Explain how different people have different objectives in a phone call. Ask what students think are the objectives of the people in the

© Cambridge University Press 2003

I'[email protected] 2 Introduce a second short extract from

the recording of Clare Macey. She is talking




second time students should complete the m essage pad. Check each message before going on to the next one. After conversations a and b, discuss the style of the speakers in each one. See Discussion below. Then go on to c and d. Finish by discussing the style in these two as well.

about being prepared for incoming calls. Tick what she recommends. • Send an email suggesting someone calls you - then be prepared for their call. No. • If you expect a call, think about what the other person will say or what they will ask.

Yes. • Check any relevant documentation or correspondence. Yes. • If you are busy or not ready when they call, ask them to call back later. No, she says offer

to call back yourself Tapescript CL AR E:

Well, another type of preparation ... you can prepare for incoming calls. Of course, you don't always know when someone is going to call, of course not, but you can have some idea just by knowing what work is going on. So, I think ... if I know so m eone's going to call me ... then of course it makes sense to think about what they'll be talking about and to try to anticipate what they might ask or say. In other words to predict what might come up - that way I can ... er ... maybe see if there's anything in particular I need to find out or check before they call - or think abo ut what I need to ask them. So if so m eone calls me and I'm not really ready to talk to them I often say I'll call back and I'll ring them when 1 am ready.


© Cambridge University Press 2003

Discuss the appropriacy of the suggestion: it is good advice, but what is a good excuse? Elicit exampl es: about to start a meeting / someone in the office just now / need to get your file, etc.

Timing: 70 minutes

Discussion Elicit brief comments on the efficiency and politeness of the speakers in calls a and b. Compare the first example with the style of the (American) caller in the second recording. Throughout the unit there is plenty of opportunity to discuss various styles. Elicit comments on the effectiveness and politeness of the different speakers. In both cases, the 'receptionists' are very polite and efficient and the caller in a is extremely helpful, speaking clearly and slowly. The caller in b is a contrast, very brief and very direct. a) TI ME '" e"

:'.: ""' ,.,

", 0 ;',: ,; PftONE O 0






W ... S IN



To Marl Jeangeorgas

I),,'e _ _ _ __

From Michael Horgan

Tirne _ _ _ __

O f From Baylis. Miami

Pho nf' -"'. " 1::.. _ _ __

Mcssa gt" None, will fax

Signed _ __


_ __



Call a) MEDIA:

3 Taking and leaving messages


0 _

W ill CAU ",GAIN

Telephone Mes sa ges


I- I (~i0 1 There are four recordings. Deal with each one in turn, playing each one twice. The fi rst time students should simply listen and not feel obliged to write anything. The

W"'tH ::; 10 SEt f OU


Hello, Media Publishing, good morning. Oh hello. My name's Gerda Hoeness, from Frankfurt. I'd like to speak to Mr Stefan Pavlov please. Oh I'm sorry - Mr Pavlov is no t here at the moment. Ca n I er ... could I have your name again , please?

Could I leave a message?








Yes, Gerda Hoeness, that's G ... E ... R ... D ... A - Gerda and Hoeness, spelt

What do you think is the relation ship between the people involved? Formal,

H ... 0 ... E ... N ... E ... S ... S.

Play the conversation again. Get students to complete the message pad as shown below:

Yes, Ms Hoeness, from frankfurt? That's right. Could you ask him to call me when he's got a moment ? Yes, I'll ask him to do that. Does he have your number? Yes, I think so, but in any case it's 49-69-75-45-22. I'll repeat that - 49-69-75-45-22. Co rrect. Okay, thanks for calling. Mr Pavlov will call you later today. Oh, that's very good. Many thanks.

business - they do not know each other.








Hello, Harris & Co, how can I help you? Hi, Michael Horgan here from Baylis in Miami. Is Mari Jeangeorges there? I beg your pardon? Who would YOLl like to speak to? Mari Jeangeorges? Is she there? Who's calling, please? Michael Horgan. I'm sorry, Mrs Jeangeorges has already left the office today. Shall I ask her to call YOLl tomorrow? No, it's okay. I'll send her an email. Oh, okay. That'll be fine. Do YOLl have her address? Yeah, no problem. I'll email her. Bye for now. Bye.



Cambr idge Uni versity Press 2003

c) Introduce recording c as a call to Altona H elpline, a customer service department for a computer software company. Play the recording twice, the first time asking two general questions. First, what kind of a call is this? Formal, req uest for



TO: Fred Roper DATE









o c~






o o o

Plu£A!';E C .lLl

WIl.( CAl!. AG .... N

n ElURNE C 10l1R CA.l.l

MESSAGE Pi e re-gena email ~jth i!tta&hmen~. AI60, fiend attachment ~ regular mail to John Curly, Auto Matrix, 270 James Road. 5tretfor'tf Road Ea9tl Mancnesur MU161DY,

El1alaria. SIGNED



d) Introduce extract d as a call to th e Computer Services Helpdesk in a large company. The first time, ask two general questions: Is the caller ringing from insid e the company? Is it formal o r informal?



Internal, informal. What do you think is the relati o nship between the people involved?

Though they work for the same company, they probably don't know each other very well. During the second listening, students should complete the m essage pad. H ere is the completed message pad: d)

. Computer ServiCe~Usel'Support TO FR OM Paul Maley

. PrOblem/enquiry:



Cat1'#;46e: erllaH to Italy. , , . ,,

-----_ ._-- ----------- -



:. '




Discussion The called person in c is very service-minded. In d, there is a contrast, as Angela sounds totally bored and disinterested. Th e caller clea rly is not getting satisfaction. Point out how Angela uses no 21



'active listening', making no response, giving no repetition or encouragement. Elicit ways in which she could have been better.

Timing: 30 minutes


Tapescript Call c) TOMASINA:











Hello, my name's Tomasina Harks, thank you for calling Altona, how may I help you? Hello, my name's John Curly, that's C ... U ... R ... L ... Y, John Curly. I'd like to speak to Fred Roper, if I may. Okay, well I'm sorry, but Fred's on another call just now. Can I take a message or perhaps I can help you? Yes, please. Could you tell him that I called - the email he sent me arrived but there should have been an attachment. It came with no attachment, so can he resend the email with the attachment? Perhaps also he could send the document by regular mail because it could be a problem for me to read what he sends. Sure. Does he have your address? No, I'd better give it to you. The email address, yes, he has that. The postal address is Auto Matrix, 270 James Road, Stretford Road East, Manchester MU16 lOY, England. Let me check that. John Curly, Auto Matrix, 217 ... No, 270, two seven zero, James Road. Right, okay, 270 James Road, then did you say Stratford Road? No, Stretford, S ... T ... R ... E ... T ... F ... 0 ... R ... 0, Stretford Road East, Manchester. MU16 lOY. Correct. Okay, may I have your phone number too? Yes, its 0161 3995576. Right, thanks. I'll get the message to him and he'll do that today. Thank you very much. Goodbye. Goodbye.




Hello. Computer Services? Yes. It's Paul Maley here from Product Support. I've a problem with the email onmymachine.Er ... I've been trying to send a document file to Italy and I keep getting the message back that it's been returned. Returned mail. (pause) I don't understand why. (pause) The colleague in Italy asked me about FTP ... File Transfer Protocol? I don't know if we have that. I was trying to send my document as an attachment ... er ... but it hasn't worked ... hello? Yeah ... what? Italy, you said? Yes. What about this FTP ... what ... why do you think it isn't working? Just a minute. I've just got to talk to someone here ... wait a minute ... (pause) I'll get Alex to call you back sometime this afternoon. What's your number? What? It's 6681. Listen ... this is urgent ...


© Cambridge Un iversity Press 2003

language focus option Note: The language of 'getting through' is not overtly examined in the Student's Book. However, since there are several examples of requesting a particular person, you may wish to focus on these. Ask learners what the response would be if the person were available.

Hold on, please, Who shall I say is cailing, One moment, please, I'll put you through, Hold the line, please, etc. You may also choose to focus on some of the language in the recordings by asking learners to repeat certain phrases, to write them down if they are not sure about them, etc.

Could I leave a message?

Practice Learners may write the dialogue based on the given flow chart or use it as a skeleton for practice in pairs or with you. Remind them that the language they have heard is typical of what is required here. There is a recording of a model answer.

Timing: 15 minutes Tapescript RECEPTION:











Good morning, Gorliz and Zimmerman. Hello, my name's Lara Camden from Bulmer Cables Ltd. Please could I speak to Mr Conrad Bird? I'm sorry, but Mr Bird is not in at the moment. I see. Er ... when do you think I could contact him? Well, at the moment he's away. Would you like to leave a message? Yes, perhaps you would ask Mr Bird to call me? My name's Camden, Lara Camden, on 020 8299462. 020 8299 462. Lara Canden. Okay? Er. .. Camden. C ... A ... M ... D ... E ... N. Oh yes, sorry! I've got that now. Thank you. I look forward to hearing from Mr Bird. It's a pleasure. Thanks for calling. Bye for now. Goodbye. © Cambridge University Press 2003

a) After the first listening students should just say why she calls. • She has to change the date of her appointment. She wrote, but she has not had a reply. b) Play the recording again. Students have to identify the reasons for the four requests for repetition: • wants caller to repeat her name • asks for spelling • did not hear who the caller wrote to • wants to check that he has got the dates right (he had not). Note that in the last example, he checks his understanding by paraphrasing (repeating) what the caller said. El 0 2 Now go on to highlight the usual structure of requests for repetition. Tell the students that each time there is a request for repetition, the person asking for the repetition also acknowledges it, or asks another question. Highlight this structure through the example gIven. Then play the conversation again, asking students to identify two other ways to acknowledge repetition. •

• •

I see. Right. I've got that now. Elicit and / or discuss other alternatives, such as Okay, I understand, Thank you, or straightforward repetition of the name, number, spelling, etc.

Timing: 20 minutes Tapescript RECEPTIONIST:


4 Asking for and giving repetition El @ 1 Introduce the recording as a conversation between a Malaysian woman who calls the Human Resources office of an American company, Michigan Insurance Inc. She has to attend for a job interview for a position in a new office in Kuala Lumpur.




Good morning. Michigan Insurance, how can I help you? Hello. My name is Kit-Mee Leung. I recently wrote to you about an interview date, but I haven't had any reply. I'm sorry, could you repeat your name, please? Yes. Leung. Kit-Mee Leung. Can you spell that, please.



KIT-MEE LEUNG: L ... E ... U ... N ... G. Leung. And Kit-Mee is K ... I ... T ... hyphen M ... E ... E. RECEPTIONIST: I see. And who did you write to? KIT-MEE LEUNC: To Mr Malley in Human Resources. RECEPTIONIST: I beg your pardon - I didn't catch that. KIT-MEE LEUNG: To Allan P. Malley, or MalleyHuman Resources Department. RECEPTIONIST: Oh yes. Did you suggest an interview date? KIT-MEE LEUNG: Originally I had a date for May 12 but I had to ask you to change it. I wrote requesting any day between May 14 and 17. RECEPTIONIST: SO - you could not come on May 12 - you asked for May 14 or 17? KIT-MEE LEUNG: Not exactly. I asked for any day between May 14 and 17. HECEPTIONIST: OK. I've got that now. Could you hold on, please? PHOTOCOPIABLE


Cambridge Uniwrsit y Press 20()3 •

1- ,1 ') 3 Students should look at the illustrations

while you play the extracts. Ask students to suggest why someone might ask for repetition and suggest a suitable phrase. Picture 1 • Unfamiliarity of foreign name. • Sorry, could you spell that, please? Picture 2 • Too many numbers spoken too rapidly, with a noisy environment. • rill sorry, I didn't catch the dimensions. Can you repeat them Illore slowly? Picture 3 • Technical information given to a nonspecialist. • Sorry, I don't understand. (Can you explain that?) Tapescript

CallI A: Who shalll say is calling, please? B: Theodor Phylaxeos from Boston, Massachusetts. 24

Call 2 c: So the dimensions have to be 225 by 45 by 3.5 and for the other one 125 by 50 by 5.5 and we need 240 of the first and 180 of the others. Did you get that? Call 3 D: They're registered shares with restricted transferability. PHOTOCOPIABLE

rD Cambridge Uni ve rsitv Press ' ()O.1

Timing: 10 minutes

Role plays 1 and 2 Using role plays in the telephoning module As with other role plays, you may wish to record conversations. However, it is perhaps more important to listen to students' own observations on what problems they have had and to offer some selective feedback based on what YOU have , noted as you listen. Decide if some or all of the students should perform their conversation for the rest of the group to hear. With telephoning practice, of course, the ideal is a telephone link between two roOIllS. Teaching telephones are perfect and you should use them if you can as they lend authenticity to the practice exercises. Alternatively, and at the very least, sit pairs of students back to back so they cannot see each other. Role plays 1 and 2 are designed to practise taking messages in a situation where both sides are keen to be as helpful as possible.

Timing: 75 minutes

5 The secretarial barrier Discuss the implications of the cartoon introducing this section. Ask students about their experience of dealing with hostile secretaries or if they themselves have ever performed a similar role. One implication is that here is a company that does not want to do business! 1- ,1~ 1 Introduce the recording by discussing the

term 'cold call'. Who makes such calls and why? Introduce the situation in the recording,

Could I leave a message?

explaining who Dominique Peron is. Play the recording once, asking students to say what Dominique is trying to do.


Key a) The Personal Assistant does not want the caller to talk to her boss - she puts him off. b) She finally suggests he sends information about his products.



EJ @ 2 Play the recording again, stopping the

tape at the relevant points to give students time to write down the phrases used by Dominique Peron to block the caller. These are highlighted in the script below.









C TG :


Bonjour, ici la CTG. Good morning, Walter Barry, here, calling from London. Could I speak to M. Le Grand, please? Who's calling, please? I'm sorry - Walter Barry, from London. Er, what is it about, please? Well, I understand that your company has a chemical processing plant. My own company, LCP, Liquid Control Products, is a leader in safety in the field of chemical processing. T would like to speak to M. Le Grand to discuss ways in which we could help CTG protect itself from problems and save money at the same time. Yes, I see. Well, M. Le Grand is not available just now. Ca n you tell me when I could reach him? He's very busy for the next few days - then he'll be away in New York. So it is difficult to give you a time. Co uld you ask him to ring me? I don't think I could do that he's very busy just now. Co uld I speak to someone else, perhaps?





Who in particular? A colleague, for example? You are speaking to his Personal Assistant. I can deal with calls for M. Le Grand. Yes, well ... er ... yes ... could I ring him tomorrow? No, I'm sorry he won't be free tomorrow. Listen, let me suggest something. You send us details of your products and services, together with references from other companies and then we'll contact you. Yes, that's very kind. I have your address. Very good, Mr ... er ... er ... Barry. Walter Barry from LCP in London. Right, Mr Barry. We look forward to hearing from you. Thank you. Goodbye. Bye. . @

Cambridge Uni versity Press 2003

Timing: 15 minutes

Discussion Elicit comments on how Dominique Peron handles the caller. She could be complimented for carrying out her brief competently - she certainly shields her boss. But isn't she a little rud e (she consistently forgets the caller's name )? If she really thinks it is okay for the caller to send information about his products, she could have suggested this at the beginning and not wasted so much tim e. If not, she should not have suggested it but m erel y said 'Thanks for your call, but we are happy with our present systems and suppliers' - if she really is sure that that is the case. The caller could have asked permiss ion to se nd some documentation abo ut his products and tentatively floated the idea of a subsequent meeting. He could have tried to speak to someone other than the Production Controller.

Timing: 5 minutes 25



[-1 0 3 Introduce the next conversation. Play the recording once and elicit students' comments and answers.

Key a) The service department. b ) He gets through and learns some useful information (the name of equipment the prospect already uses). c) He is successful because he asks for a department or section, not an individual. He wants to get in touch with users of the relevant equipment. He is more interested in talking to users at this stage than actual purchasers or senior management.

Timing: 5 minutes Tapescript FUMI AUTO:






Good morning. Fumi Auto Limited. Hello. Could I have the service department please? One moment, please. I'll put you through. . Hello, Service. Hello. I'm calling about precision measuring equipment. My company produces precision measuring instruments and I wonder if you have any problems with precision measuring of any kind. For example, could you tell me what equipment you presently use? Well, certainly we do use that kind of equipment, we've got a PT200, we've had it for a number of years now ...

Timing: 15 minutes

( Introduction • IV Module 1 Cultural diversity and socialising Unit 1 Building a relationship Briefing 1 Cross-c...

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