The conclusion of the essay
The function of the essay's Conclusion is to restate the main argument. It reminds the reader of the strengths of the argument: that is, it reiterates the most important evidence supporting the argument. Make sure, however, that your conclusion is not simply a repetitive summary as this reduces the impact of the argument you have developed in your essay. The conclusion provides a forum for you to persuasively and succinctly restate your thesis given the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic. Depending on the discipline you are writing in, the concluding paragraph may also contain a reflection on the evidence presented, or on the essay's thesis. The nature of the reflection will depend on your topic (Woodward-Kron, 1997) but questions such as these may be considered:
What is the significance of your findings?
What are the implications of your conclusions for this topic and for the broader field?
Are their any limitations to your approach?
Are there any other factors of relevance that impact upon the topic but fell outside the scope of the essay?
Are their any suggestions you can make in terms of future research?
The conclusion should match the introduction in terms of the ideas presented and the argument put forward. Sometimes you will find that the process of writing has changed what you have argued and so it will be necessary to go back and reword the introduction. Finally, the conclusion is not the place in your essay to introduce new information or new ideas: these should be in the body of your essay.
Essay Question:: Italy on the eve of 1860 has often been described as an unlikely nation. Why?
|Before 1860, only a tiny minority of the population believed that Italy could ever become a unified nation under one Italian ruler. Yet, despite this belief and the many obstacles blocking the path to unificationsuch as differences and suspicion between the many regions of the peninsula, the lack of planning and common goals that saw many uprisings fail and the divergent views and politics amongst the men who fought for unity,the Piedmont region emerged "...as the nucleus around which the rest of Italy could gather" (Mack Smith, 1959: 17). On March 17, 1861, the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed. Italy was no longer a geographical expression, it was a nation.||reference to essay question|
reiteration of thesis point
overview of main arguments explaining the obstacles to Italy's unification
concluding comment and reference to essay question
1 This essay has been adapted from material developed by R. Woodward-Kron, E. Thomson & J. Meek (2000) Academic Writing: a language based guide (CD-ROM), University of Wollongong
© Copyright 2000
Comments and questions should
be directed to Unilearning@uow.edu.au
These notes were contributed by members of the GradeSaver community. We are thankful of their contributions and encourage you to make your own.
The novel follows 17-year-old Josephine Alibrandi, who lives with her single mother of Italian background, as she evolves through her final year of high school. She is introduced as a typical teenager, with issues of insecurity, peer pressure and maintaining relationships with those around her. The opening portrays Josephine as arrogant, as she is challenging the authority of Sister Gregory in religious education class of St Martha’s High School, a wealthy Catholic private school which Josie is attending on a scholarship. She feels isolated due to her illegitimacy and Italian family history, and greatly dislikes her strict grandmother Nonna. Josie’s father, Michael Andretti, whom she has never met, has just moved back to work in a Sydney law firm, adding to the drama in her life.
Josie’s friends, Anna, Sera and Lee, can relate to her as they all don’t come from wealthy families. However, Josie is slightly resentful about this and intensely envies Ivy Lloyd, the school captain, also known as Poison Ivy.
Chapter 4 introduces us to John Barton, who Josie wishes would accompany her to the first regional dance as it would make the entire school envious. However, at the dance, Josie becomes reluctantly attracted to Jacob Coote, who gives her a ride home on his motorcycle even though Josie risked getting into trouble with her mum. She learns about the death of Jacob’s mother, and how he dealt with it. Soon after, John Barton invites her to coffee, which she declines due to her budding romance with Jacob.
In Chapter 6, Josie meets Michael for the second time. Michael shows little interest in becoming acquainted with his daughter, telling Christina “I don’t want her”. Josie overhears this, and later expresses her anger towards Michael for leaving her mum when she was young, and not contacting them since. She warns Michael not to hurt her mum.
When Josie stays with Nonna for a night, she learns about Nonna’s life as a young woman in Sicily and how she was forced to move to Australia. As Nonna shared that her decisions meant that she would never see her family again, Josie finds herself connecting with her grandmother on a more intimate level.
In Chapter 8, Josie has a confrontation with Carly Bishop, one of the beautiful girls in school, which eventuates in Josie hitting Carly across her face and breaking her nose. Josie phones Michael’s office when Carly’s dad Ron insists that she is represented by her lawyer. Michael shows up to defend his daughter, and settles the ordeal in favour of Josie, who feels grateful towards Michael as he came to her rescue even though she previously told him to stay away.
The novel deals with the serious issue of suicide. In chapter 28, Josie finds out from Ivy that John took his own life. Both Josie and Ivy are deeply affected by this tragedy, and bonded over the common care for John.
Throughout the rest of the novel, Josie learns to appreciate and love her father more. She also acknowledges her deep love for her mother and grandmother, as well as an appreciation of her familial and cultural background. She accepts the differences that keep her and Jacob apart, yet is optimistic about overcoming these hindrances. She holds hope for the future, and recognises her incredible journey of love and learning.
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