The case for living in the country
Big city glamor? Balderdash. Try big city cost. If you want to live like a king (or at least be your own landlord), move to the country.
1. It's cheap. You have to actively try to spend more than $20 on a meal, even a good one. A movie still costs single digits. No one has a clue or cares what brand of clothing you're wearing, let alone whether your shoes, purse or belt are this year's season or last. And did I mention housing? You can live in a real house with multiple bedrooms, multiple bathrooms and a garage. Maybe even a pool. And you can own it for under $200,000. Yup, you read that right. I didn't leave off any zeros.
2. There's space – for you, for your dog, for your kids, between you and your annoying neighbors. An ad on the NY subway sums up: "Raising a baby in an NYC apartment is like growing an oak tree in a thimble." In the city, you live on top of each other. Your kids and your dog barely know what grass is. In the country, you have something called a yard. You run around, kick a football and chase fireflies. You go sledding and build snowmen on fresh snow that hasn't been trodden by hundreds of others. You can actually identify constellations because you see lots of them each night. You are fascinated by a lot more interesting animals than squirrels, and your dog acts like a dog, you don't have to carry around bags for its poop.
3. There are no billionaires. And frankly, few millionaires. To put it another way, there's a lot less income inequality. Since the cost of living is much lower, even those on the median family income (about $50,000 in the US) can have a decent life. You don't feel poor as you do in big cities where even those earning six-figures still believe they're "just getting by". In the country, you aren't constantly aware of your socioeconomic status. You worry a lot more about the weather.
4. You aren't reliant on public transit. You don't have to push your way onto an overcrowded subway car only to find yourself squashed next to someone who smells or elbows you. You aren't late because there's been a delay and some robot-like voice has to tell you about it over and over on the speaker. You can drive yourself where you want, when you want. Even if there's traffic (and there isn't much outside of cities), you can usually find another way to go. You are in control, and there's plenty of (free) parking.
5. You don't get suspicious when people are nice to you. People say hello and "how are you" and generally mean it. You go to the grocery store and have a decent chance of seeing at least someone you know. Your doctor actually calls you back the same day you call with a concern. People don't size you up constantly based upon your job, social status or income. Volunteer work isn't something you do for your resume. You feel a part of a genuine community, not just one peon out of millions.
The case for living in the city
The countryside? It must be nice if you're retired … or dead. If you want to have a semblance of a social life and like to do wild things like, oh, going to the cinema on a Monday night, the city is for you.
1. Walking. It's a thing. Forget about having to spend a quarter of your paycheck on a car. Forget about feeding your second-hand beater gallons of earth-destroying gas on a weekly basis. And (unless you live in LA) forget about spending two hours a day stuck in traffic. Living in the city means that walking is often an option. And if it's not, commuting by public transport makes you feel like you're part of the world: you and others are on the same boat, so to speak, taking time to pause and read, or listen to music, before reaching work or going home. And, from London to Paris, Amsterdam to Vancouver, chances are you will be also be lucky enough to be able to bike everywhere – making you both fitter and happier.
2. You will never be the underdog. As Daria would tell you, it sucks to be the odd one out. If you're a goth, head to London's Camden Town, which will love to have you. You like playing in all-female netball teams? You'll find a club. Love mushroom-hunting? Start your own group. In Sydney, where I live, my local park alone is the home to joggers, skateboarders, tai chi lovers and tight-rope walkers. There's something for everyone. And kiss bigotry goodbye, too: if you're gay, you will easily find both a welcoming environment. And better dating prospects.
3. The entire world is (almost) on your doorstep. I don't know about you, but it would be a shame to die on the way to the hospital – or give birth on the side of a road. Which probably won't happen in the city. You can order anything from online stores and – miracle! – receive it the next day. Museums, galleries, libraries are easily accessible, a lot of them free. And food: enough said. Who likes to have the choice only between a grim pub serving dismal burgers or fish-and-chips and the local Subway branch at the back of a derelict mall? Not me.
4. It teaches you tolerance. The world is a diverse place – and in the city, you learn that fast. There's a reason New Yorkers are considered to be the most thick-skinned people on earth: nothing fazes them, because no one has time to be fazed and they've seen it all anyway. Someone is rude to on the subway? Move along. Someone cuts you while queuing in the supermarket? Get ahead and get even. But cities also teach patience and empathy because, after all, you're all in this together. Compromise is in the very fabric of city living. Neighbours complaining about your Saturday party? You have to reach an agreement. People who don't act, think, or speak like you do? Kids who annoy you by listening to rap music in the bus? They share your space, too. And you, theirs. It's an imperfect and fragile microcosm, which, no matter its many drawbacks, seems to work. Almost like magic.
5. The countryside is not like living in Gilmore Girls. If you think the countryside is like living on the idyllic Gilmore Girls' set, you're mistaken. Nor are you likely to live the Good Life, a la Helen and Scott Nearing, who fed themselves thanks to their homestead until they both died. True country-living means backbreaking work, including thankless chores performed before dawn. Here in Sydney, I pop to the corner shop to get eggs at midnight if I want. And if you're not a true back-to-the-lander living on a 120-acre farm in the middle of nowhere, you then have to live in a community where everything you do will be scrutinised. Privacy will be hard to maintain. No such thing will happen in the city, where people couldn't care less whether you like to walk around with your pet snake, like to wear mini-skirts in sub-freezing weather, or sing Bryan Adams' Everything I Do I Do It For You out loud while on your way to buy a baguette. Short of becoming a hermit, if you're a private individual or an introvert, city life is for you.
On this page:
Small towns and rural communities throughout the United States are looking for ways to strengthen their economies, provide better quality of life, and build on local assets. Many rural communities and small towns are facing challenges, including rapid growth at metropolitan edges, declining rural populations, and loss of farms and working lands.
Slow-growing and shrinking rural areas might find that their policies are not bringing the prosperity they seek, while fast-growing rural areas at the edge of metropolitan regions face metropolitan-style development pressures.
Smart growth strategies can help rural communities achieve their goals for growth and development while maintaining their distinctive rural character.
- Planning where development should or should not go can help a rural community encourage growth in town, where businesses can thrive on a walkable main street and families can live close to their daily destinations.
- Policies that protect the rural landscape help preserve open space, protect air and water quality, provide places for recreation, and create tourist attractions that bring investments into the local economy.
- Policies that support walking, biking, and public transit help reduce air pollution from vehicles while saving people money.
Top of Page
- (2016): Step-by-step guide to building a place-based economic development strategy. It is intended for small and mid-sized cities, particularly those that have limited population growth, areas of disinvestment, and/or a struggling economy.
- Smart Growth Self-Assessment for Rural Communities (2015): Can help a community assess its policies, programs, and codes to determine whether they support the type of development the community wants.
- How Small Towns and Cities Can Use Local Assets to Rebuild Their Economies: Lessons From Successful Places (2015): Includes case studies of small towns and cities that emphasized their existing assets and distinctive resources to build their economies.
- Putting Smart Growth to Work in Rural Communities, EPA and the International City/County Management Association (2010): Focuses on smart growth strategies to meet three main goals: support the rural landscape by keeping working lands viable and conserving natural lands; help existing places thrive by taking care of investments and assets; and create great new places by building lively and enduring neighborhoods where people want to live.
- Essential Smart Growth Fixes for Rural Planning, Zoning, and Development Codes (2009): Provides policy options that can help rural communities strengthen their economies while preserving rural character. Topics include fiscal impact analysis, commercial development, wastewater infrastructure, rural roads, and efficient development patterns.
- Partnership for Sustainable Communities: Through the Partnership, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), and EPA worked together to align investments and coordinate policies to help communities improve access to affordable housing, increase transportation options, and lower transportation costs while protecting the environment.
- Federal Resources for Sustainable Rural Communities (2012): Provides information on funding and technical assistance opportunities available from HUD, DOT, EPA, and USDA, as well as examples of how rural communities across the country have put these programs into action.
- Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities (2011): Explores how the Partnership for Sustainable Communities can contribute to more resilient economies, healthy environments, and quality of life in rural America. It also proposes a framework for the Partnership's future work with rural communities.
- The American Indian Environmental Office leads EPA’s efforts to protect human health and the environment in federally recognized tribes.
- Green Building Tools for Tribes offers resources to help tribes develop, implement, and enforce culturally relevant green building codes, policies, and programs.
Top of Page
Technical Assistance Programs
- Cool & Connected: Under this pilot program, USDA and EPA will fund teams of experts to help members of selected communities develop strategies and an action plan for using planned or existing broadband service to promote smart, sustainable community development.
- Healthy Places for Healthy People: This program helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with their health care facility partners such as community health centers (including Federally Qualified Health Centers), nonprofit hospitals, and other health care facilities.
- Local Foods, Local Places: This partnership among EPA, USDA, DOT, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Appalachian Regional Commission, and Delta Regional Authority helps create more livable places by promoting local food enterprises such as farmers’ markets, food hubs, community gardens, and community kitchens on main streets in downtowns and existing neighborhoods. Local Foods, Local Places builds on the Livable Communities in Appalachia Program, described below.
- Livable Communities in Appalachia: Across the Appalachia region, small towns and rural communities want to revitalize their traditional downtowns to boost the local economy and improve quality of life. Through the Livable Communities in Appalachia Program, EPA partnered with USDA and the Appalachian Regional Commission to help these towns explore ways to integrate smart growth approaches to restore their downtowns and neighborhoods, making them healthy, walkable, and economically vibrant.
Top of Page
Technical Assistance Reports
EPA has worked with several small towns and rural places to help them achieve their development. These reports might be helpful to other communities facing similar issues.
- Local Foods, Local Places partner communities develop Community Action Plans that could be useful models for other communities.
- Madison County, New York (2015): Tested the Smart Growth Self-Assessment for Rural Communities tool that can help communities evaluate their policies, programs, and codes.
- Waverly, Iowa (2011): Created policy options for green infrastructure strategies and housing and infill policies that could be incorporated into the city's comprehensive plan and development regulations. Waverly's efforts are also described in a case study in Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities.
- Cedar Rapids, Iowa (2010): Assessed how land use policies could be changed to create incentives for infill development and sustainable growth.
- California Strategic Growth Council (2010): Developed a guidebook that provides strategies, progress indicators, and resources to help local governments find the right combination of smart growth strategies for their communities.
- Sussex County, Delaware (2009): Presented green street design options to manage stormwater runoff and improve safety and aesthetics.
- Marquette, Michigan (2008): Developed a form-based code to help guide the city in its decisions about development in the Downtown Waterfront District.
- Pamlico County, North Carolina (2008): Examined smart growth approaches to improve a rural highway corridor.
- Driggs and Victor, Idaho (2007): Identified barriers to infill development.
- Laconia, New Hampshire (2007): Engaged the public in adopting a new master plan designed to protect water resources, create walkable neighborhoods, and strengthen neighborhood centers.
- Porter County, Indiana (2007): Developed traditional neighborhood development design guidelines to supplement the county's Unified Development Ordinance for land development.
- Wells, Maine (2007): Explored different stormwater management, transportation, and parking strategies, along with building and land use designs for the Route 109 corridor and Wells Corner central area.
- Aquidneck Island, Rhode Island (2006): Developed approaches for mixed-use zoning standards, design guidelines, and review processes in three communities.
- Taos, New Mexico (2006): Explored options to help make development along State Highway 68, the Paseo del Pueblo Sur commercial corridor, more attractive and economically stronger.
- McCall, Idaho (2005): Created a vision for development at two sites along the East-West Loop Road.
Top of Page
National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Winners
- Charles City Riverfront Park – Charles City, Iowa (2013): After decades of fighting against the often-flooded Cedar River, Charles City transformed the land next to the river into a park that has become the recreational heart of the city. VideoExit
- The Cooperative Building – Brattleboro, Vermont (2012): A new, energy-efficient, multi-story building with a food co-op, affordable apartments, and innovative, money-saving environmental features has contributed to the vibrancy of Brattleboro’s Main Street while promoting healthy living. VideoExit
- Maroney Commons – Howard, South Dakota (2011): With just over 850 residents, Howard is reimagining what it means to be rural with Maroney Commons, a mixed-use, green complex with a hotel, a conference center, a restaurant, and offices that will help rural residents learn about green jobs and technology. VideoExit
- Gateway 1 Corridor Action Plan – Maine (2010): The Gateway 1 Corridor Action Plan covers a 100-mile stretch along U.S. Route 1 in Maine. Twenty towns worked together to preserve the economy, environment, and quality of life along this regionally significant corridor. VideoExit
- Lancaster County Planning Commission – Lancaster County, Pennsylvania (2009): The Lancaster County Planning Commission established a regional, comprehensive growth management plan that protects farmland and historic landscapes by directing development to established towns and cities in the county. VideoExit
- Vermont Housing and Conservation Board – State of Vermont (2007): The Vermont Housing and Conservation Board used more than $150 million in private equity raised through low-income housing and historic rehabilitation tax credits to create mixed-use, mixed-income developments located near existing transit systems.
- Balanced Growth Through Downtown Revitalization – Town of Barnstable, Massachusetts (2007): Public space and streetscape improvements have helped revitalize Hyannis, a village within the town of Barnstable. The redevelopment plan has reconnected residents to the waterfront and downtown by creating pedestrian-friendly walkways. Bicycle and public transit routes are reconnected to main streets and residential neighborhoods while new residential developments are linked to natural areas and wetlands.
- Winooski Downtown Redevelopment Project – Winooski, Vermont (2006): The Winooski Downtown Redevelopment Project revitalized this small town by preserving or restoring nearly 100 acres of natural habitat, returning vacant properties to productive use, creating several neighborhood parks, and building the pedestrian-friendly RiverWalk.
- Gilbert & Bennett Wire Mill Redevelopment – Redding, Connecticut (2005): Over 1,000 people participated in workshops that helped define the cleanup plan, historic preservation guidelines, and master plan for the town’s redevelopment.
- Town of Davidson Planning Department – Davidson, North Carolina (2004): The small community of Davidson created healthy and vibrant neighborhoods in a historic setting. The town revitalized its existing buildings, and its new neighborhoods incorporated a variety of lot sizes and housing types and neighborhood parks within a five-minute walk.
- Town of Breckenridge Planning Department - Breckenridge, Colorado (2002): The Wellington Neighborhood in Breckenridge provides affordable and market-rate housing on a site that was once dredge-mined. The project recycled land, created housing for working families, provided a free transit shuttle to the nearby downtown, and helped the region avoid "mountain sprawl."
Top of Page
Webinars and Videos
Visit our webinars, videos, and podcasts page for information about smart growth-related webinars and videos on small towns and rural communities.
Top of Page
- USDA – Rural Development offers technical assistance and information to help agricultural producers and cooperatives get started and operate more effectively.
- National Association of Development OrganizationsExit and its members promote regional strategies, partnerships, and solutions to strengthen economic competitiveness and quality of life in America’s communities.
- Appalachian Regional Commission is a regional economic development agency that is a partnership of federal, state, and local government. It is composed of the governors of the 13 Appalachian states and a federal co-chair appointed by the president.
- Rural Policy Research InstituteExit provides information on the challenges and opportunities facing rural America.
Top of Page