Use legible, standard font types, such as , , or , in common sizes (12 point for text [ 2 ], 10 point for footnotes and if desired, 14 point for the title page and other headings). Use only black ink.
For transparencies used in overhead projectors, use at least 24 point font size for the text and 36 for headings, and if possible 32 and 44. Use colours sparingly. The text pages of your written assignment should not be simply copied as overhead material. The projection will be too small and will not be legible for the class.
For assignments that will be marked and receive comments, use double spacing for the text, triple spaces between paragraphs and single spacing for block quotations, footnotes and other reference notes, appendices and the bibliography. For spacing in the table of contents, see the example at the beginning of this Guide. Lists of tables and figures follow the same rules as the table of contents. For other kinds of assignments, single spacing allows you to conserve space and paper. Nonetheless, consult your course instructor and marker before handing in your paper.
You may choose to use emphasis (bold, italics or underline) to highlight specific ideas or words. They can be an effective technique, but do not overuse. When quoting another work, indicate in a footnote who is responsible for the emphasis, yourself or the original author: use phrases such as emphasis added, or emphasis in original. When citing titles, use underlining or preferably italics for books, official documents and periodicals, and quotation marks [ ] for titles of articles or individual chapters of publications.
e) Page Numbering and Length of Text
Place the page number in the top right-hand corner or top centre of the page. Align with the margin, at 1.5 cm from the top of the page. Do not add any punctuation, dash, bracket or other character with the page number. Count, but do not number, all preliminary pages with headings and other title pages: first page of the table of contents, lists of tables and figures, lists of abbreviations and acronyms, title pages for the introduction, for each main part, the conclusion, the appendices and bibliography. Front matter is usually numbered with lower case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc.), placed on the page in the same way as other page numbers. Arabic numbering (1, 2, 3, etc.) begins with the first page of the written text. Include a single sheet of blank paper at the end of your assignment for marking and comments.
Unless you are given other instructions, do not consider titles pages, tables of contents, lists of abbreviations, the bibliography and the appendices when you calculate the length of your paper: only the text of the paper itself. If you are to respect a certain limit of words, consider that one page of double-spaced text in Times New Roman 12 point, without headings and sub-headings, is approximately 300 words, or 600 words single-spaced. While in the past, when calculating the number of words in an assignment, articles, pronouns and conjunctions were excluded, this is no longer the case. Word count functions in most computers will also count all words, without distinction.
f) Division of Sections
For the internal division of your text, use titles and sub-titles that allow you to improve the coherence and organization of your work. Keep them short and precise, concentrating on the main idea you want to convey to the reader. Titles for main parts (introduction, main ideas of the development, conclusion) are written in CAPITAL LETTERS and may include the specific titles INTRODUCTION, PART ONE, PART TWO, etc. or in Roman numerals I, II, III, etc. If applicable (in a thesis or a very substantial essay), the titles of chapters are written in lower case with Arabic numbering (1, 2, 3) and titles of sections alphabetically in lower case letters (a, b, c). Avoid the excessive use of divisions, remembering that the purpose is to help organization and facilitate the reader's understanding of the text. All headings and sub-headings are preceded by a triple space, and followed by a double space.
Using quotations to illustrate a point, share a convincing argument or present an expression can be an effective way to complement your writing. All quotations must be faithfully reproduced (and placed in quotation marks), but in some circumstances alterations are required to conform with rules of grammar. In some cases, where extensive alterations or omissions are required, it may be preferable to paraphrase. When paraphrasing, you are nonetheless required to use a reference note, either author-date or footnote format. Here are some examples of quotation techniques.
An insertion using square brackets can provide information to clarify the idea:
An omission also allows you to make a quotation more clear, with the use of ellipsis points (three dots) in the place of the omitted text:
When using an interruption, quotation marks are repeated before and after each part of the quotation:
You may include French quotations in your text without providing a translation. Keep the intended reader in mind, and provide appropriate context to support the quotation. Do not place French quotations in italics: use regular quotation marks. For other languages, a translation is required. If you choose to give a translation of any quotation, check first if a translated version exists, either published or non-published, that will lend credibility to your choice of words. If it is necessary to give your own translation, provide an explanatory reference note:
Paraphrasing may allow you to keep the meaning of the quote without using the same words:
Quotations of more than three lines should be placed in single-spaced, block-quotation form, and indented.
h) References and Notes
References indicate the source of an idea or a quotation, and also allow you to make complimentary comments that may not be necessary in the body of the text. There are two major styles commonly used in the social sciences (a third style, endnotes, should be avoided). Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. There are also specific conventions to follow when citing court decisions, important classical works, administrative reports, etc. Consult a common style manual, such as those listed in the bibliography of this Guide, or ask your course instructor to guide you with the most appropriate choice.
Footnotes were the traditional method for references. A line at the bottom of the page separates the notes from the body of the text. You may choose to use the abbreviation ibid., in cases where two or more successive references originate from a single work, but avoid the overuse of ibid.For works previously referenced, give the last name of the author, a shortened title and the page number of the quotation. See the footnotes of this Guide for examples. Other abbreviations, such as op. cit. and loc. cit., referring to previously referenced material, often cause confusion and should not be used. Rather, use the short-title form discussed above.
The author-date reference method discussed in Section 1.h is now widely used by journals and publishing houses. This method, used in the Internet version of this Guide, reduces the use of footnotes to commentary, and places references in the body of your text. A variant of the author-date style, as exposed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the norm in psychology.
Students registered in courses offered by the Faculty of Social Sciences have the responsibility to be aware of regulations at both the faculty and university levels. An overview of a number of relevant regulations can be found at the beginning of the Faculty's Undergraduate Studies Calendar. Being informed of university rules on academic fraud, as well as learning and respecting course requirements, can help you avoid any problems in your course work.
1. Academic fraud and plagiarism
The University of Ottawa defines academic fraud as an act by a student which may result in a false academic evaluation of that student (University of Ottawa, Faculty of Social Sciences 1997: 24). There are many types of fraud related to assignments: plagiarism, falsification of data or sources, the submission of a work or of a piece of a work of which the student is not the author, etc. Academic fraud is subject to sanctions, from a failing mark for the work concerned to expulsion from the University. All persons involved in academic fraud are liable to a penalty.
University work requires both the ability to explore a given subject in depth, and the skill of summarizing and analyzing the work and thoughts of other authors. In this context, using other sources, learning from them and integrating their concepts in your work is inevitable, even encouraged. However, you have an intellectual and ethical responsibility to give credit to those sources that have contributed to your projects. It is essential to identify all your sources, that is the origin of each quotation and idea which you borrow, with precision and diligence. To plagiarize is to use the ideas or words of another person without giving them explicit credit. That 'other person' can be a published or non-published author, a university colleague, a person who completes assignments for others, or even an Internet. Remember that any sequence of words taken from another source must be placed in quotation marks.
Even when paraphrasing an idea borrowed from someone else, found in any source, you must provide an accurate reference or it is considered plagiarism. Conscious or not, plagiarism is always fraud. Therefore, it is necessary to make note of all your sources, both quotations and ideas, as you conduct your reading and research for your assignments.
In case of doubt, it is suggested that you consult the section Avoiding Plagiarism in Babbie and Halley (1993: 210-211). These authors give examples of what is and is not acceptable in the use of another's work and suggest some rules of thumb:
2. Respecting course requirements
Both at university and in the workplace, it is essential to understand the requirements of an assignment: deadlines, formatting, length, etc. In particular, to maintain an equitable environment for all students, it is required to respect due dates for all university work. It is often mandatory, and always prudent, to submit your assignment by hand to the appropriate person, in class or in their office, at the correct date and time. In cases where assignments are submitted after the deadline, or where other discrepancies exist between the assignment's requirements and the final work, penalties apply as announced in the course outline distributed at the outset of the semester. To keep any penalties to a minimum, it is recommended to have a late assignment stamped with the date and time by the relevant staff person at your academic unit.
It is also wise to keep a copy (printed or stored on computer) of each of your university assignments, but that does not constitute proof that it was submitted within the given deadlines. Unless you have specific instructions from the course instructor, assignments must not be submitted by facsimile or by e-mail.
In some cases, failing to submit a required assignment by the due date can result in a grade of INC (incomplete) for the course, equivalent to a failing final mark.
BABBIE, Earl and Fred HALLEY (1993). Adventures in Social Research., Newbury Park, Calif.: Pine Forge Press.
BAKER, Sheridan et al. (1997). The Canadian Practical Stylist with Readings. New York: Harper and Row.
BAXTER-MOORE, Nicolas et al. (1994). Studying Politics: An Introduction to Argument and Analysis. Toronto: Copp Clark Longman.
BOLNER, James (1997). How to Cite the Internet, http://www.artsci.lsu.edu/poli/lis.html (August).
BRETON Gilles and Jane JENSON (1992), "Globalisation et citoyenneté; quelques enjeux actuels", in L'ethnicité à l'heure de la mondialisation, eds. Caroline Andrew et al., Ottawa: University of Ottawa: ACFAS-Outaouais.
Canada. Public Works and Government Services Canada (1997). The Canadian Style. Rev. ed. Toronto: Dundurn Press.
The Chicago Manual of Style (1993). 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
EICHLER, Margrit and Jeanne LAPOINTE (1985). On the Treatment of the Sexes in Research. Ottawa: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.
NORTHEY, Margot (1987). Making Sense: A Student's Guide to Writing and Style. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
PALYS, Ted (1992). Research Decisions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
ROBERTSON, Hugh (1991). The Research Essay: A Guide to Papers, Essays and Projects. Rev. ed. Ottawa: Piperhill Publications,.
SMITH, Alastair G. (1997). Criteria for evaluation of Internet Information Resources, http://www.vuw.ac.nz/~agsmith/evaln/index.htm#Authority (March 2).
University of Ottawa. Faculty of Social Sciences (1997). Undergraduate Studies Calendar 1997-1999. University of Ottawa: Office of the Registrar.
Assignment Cover Page Printing
CS132/122 requires all assignments submitted via the drop boxes to have a pre-printed standardized cover page. This cover page assists with marking and returning assignments. When you click on the link below, a .pdf file will be generated with your username and practicum section information.
To print the file, choose Print from the File menu.
Please Note: Cover page printing will not be done using lab fees; these cover pages will be printed using your regular printer quota. This means that you must ensure that you always have at least $0.08 in your CAS account to avoid being unable to print a cover page.
The script to produce a cover page can be found on the web by clicking on the link below. You will need to provide your Quest password.